Flashcards in EMT Chapters 13,17,27,15,16 Deck (56):
For a trauma patient with no significant mechanism of injury, what are the steps for assessment?
After the scene size up,
1. determine chief complaint & info on injury
2. Perform secondary assessment (expose/auscultate/palpate)
3. Assess baseline vitals
4. Obtain PMH
5. Treat injury.
What is the steps of assessment of a trauma patient with no significant mechanism of injury?
1. Immobilize spine
2. Consider ALS
3. Perform rapid assessment
4. Get baseline vitals
5. Get PMH
What is cardiac tamponade?
Muffled heart sounds.
What is DCAP BTLS?
What are contusions?
Bruising (internal bleeding)
What are abrasions?
When checking the head durning a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?
DCAP BTLS, Raccoon eyes, battle signs, odors, PUPILS
When checking the neck during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?
DCAP BTLS, deviated trachea, JVD, Spinal alignment.
What do you do immediately after examining the neck during a rapid trauma assessment?
Place C Collar.
What is hypovolemia?
Low blood volume
When checking the chest during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?
DCAP BTLS, flail chest
What do you do immediately after checking the chest during a rapid trauma assessment?
Auscultate lung sounds
When checking the abdomen during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?
DCAP BTLS, tenderness/rigidity, pulsating masses
What is a pulsating mass in the abdomen a sign of?
Abdominal aortic aneurysm
When checking the pelvis during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?
DCAP BTLS, incontinence, priapism, stability
Priapism and incontinence is a sign of what?
Spinal cord injury
When checking the extremities during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?
DCAP BTLS, PMS-C
When do you check PMS-C on a trauma patient?
Before and after movement of the patient.
What is PMS-C?
When checking the back during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?
DCAP BTLS, spinal alignment
Immediately after examining the back of a trauma patient, what procedure is done
Secure patient to backboard
What follows the rapid trauma exam of a trauma patient?
Detailed physical exam and treatment of non life threatening injuries
What is SVR?
Systemic Vascular Resistance
Blood pressure = what?
Cardiac output • SVR
Arteries have the ability to _____ and ____ whereas veins have ______ to control blood flow.
Constrict and dilate; valves
Arterial blood is high in _____ whereas venous blood is high in _____.
Arterial - oxygen
Venous - carbon dioxide
What type of bleeding is most difficult to control?
In order, what are the methods for bleeding control?
Elevate the wound
Apply pressure dressing
How do hemp static agents work to control bleeding?
They clump like kitty litter and absorb RBCs.
What is epistaxis?
What are other ways of controlling bleeding?
Pneumatic anti-shock garment
What is PASG?
Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment
Why do we not control the bleeding on a head injury?
We may increase the intracranial pressure.
What is herniation?
When the brain oozes into the formen magnum.
What is the term that means vomiting blood?
What is the term that means coughing up blood?
What are signs of internal bleeding?
Injury to surface
Contusions, swelling, or deformities
Bleeding from orifice
Tender, rigid, distended abdomen
How much blood can a patient lose in the abdomen/thorax?
Approx. 3 liters
How much blood can a patient lose in the pelvis?
Approx. 1.5 to 6 liters
How much blood can a patient lose in the femur?
Approx. 1.5 liters
What is the definition of shock?
Inadequate tissue profusion.
What happens in the body when a patient goes into shock?
Fight or flight responses are triggered
Epi and norepi are released
What is the body's response to shock?
Skins: pale cool and diaphoretic
What are causes of shock?
Problems with the heart, vessels, or blood
What are the types of shock?
Hypovolemic and hemorrhagic shock
What are the three subtypes of shock?
What are the three categories of shock?
What are signs of compensated shock?
BP is normal
Anxious and restless
What are signs of decompensated shock?
loss of peripheral pulses
Altered mental status
What is UNK?
What is PTA?
Prior to arrival
What is NKA?
No known allergies
What is CHART?
Rx - treatment
What is SOAP?
What is SBAR?