EMT Chapters 13,17,27,15,16 Flashcards Preview

Emergency Care > EMT Chapters 13,17,27,15,16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in EMT Chapters 13,17,27,15,16 Deck (56):
0

For a trauma patient with no significant mechanism of injury, what are the steps for assessment?

After the scene size up,
1. determine chief complaint & info on injury
2. Perform secondary assessment (expose/auscultate/palpate)
3. Assess baseline vitals
4. Obtain PMH
5. Treat injury.

1

What is the steps of assessment of a trauma patient with no significant mechanism of injury?

1. Immobilize spine
2. Consider ALS
3. Perform rapid assessment
4. Get baseline vitals
5. Get PMH

2

What is cardiac tamponade?

Muffled heart sounds.

3

What is DCAP BTLS?

Deformities
Contusions
Abrasions
Penetrations/punctures

Burns
Tenderness
Lacerations
Swelling

4

What are contusions?

Bruising (internal bleeding)

5

What are abrasions?

"road rash"

6

When checking the head durning a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?

DCAP BTLS, Raccoon eyes, battle signs, odors, PUPILS

7

When checking the neck during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?

DCAP BTLS, deviated trachea, JVD, Spinal alignment.

8

What do you do immediately after examining the neck during a rapid trauma assessment?

Place C Collar.

9

What is hypovolemia?

Low blood volume

10

When checking the chest during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?

DCAP BTLS, flail chest

11

What do you do immediately after checking the chest during a rapid trauma assessment?

Auscultate lung sounds

12

When checking the abdomen during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?

DCAP BTLS, tenderness/rigidity, pulsating masses

13

What is a pulsating mass in the abdomen a sign of?

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

14

When checking the pelvis during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?

DCAP BTLS, incontinence, priapism, stability

15

Priapism and incontinence is a sign of what?

Spinal cord injury

16

When checking the extremities during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?

DCAP BTLS, PMS-C

17

When do you check PMS-C on a trauma patient?

Before and after movement of the patient.

18

What is PMS-C?

Pulse
Motor
Sensory
Capillary Refill

19

When checking the back during a rapid trauma assessment, what are you looking for?

DCAP BTLS, spinal alignment

20

Immediately after examining the back of a trauma patient, what procedure is done

Secure patient to backboard

21

What follows the rapid trauma exam of a trauma patient?

Detailed physical exam and treatment of non life threatening injuries

22

What is SVR?

Systemic Vascular Resistance

23

Blood pressure = what?

Cardiac output • SVR

24

Arteries have the ability to _____ and ____ whereas veins have ______ to control blood flow.

Constrict and dilate; valves

25

Arterial blood is high in _____ whereas venous blood is high in _____.

Arterial - oxygen
Venous - carbon dioxide

26

What type of bleeding is most difficult to control?

Arterial bleeds

27

In order, what are the methods for bleeding control?

Direct pressure
Elevate the wound
Apply pressure dressing
Tourniquet

28

How do hemp static agents work to control bleeding?

They clump like kitty litter and absorb RBCs.

29

What is epistaxis?

Nosebleed

30

What are other ways of controlling bleeding?

Splinting
Cold application
Pneumatic anti-shock garment

31

What is PASG?

Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment

32

Why do we not control the bleeding on a head injury?

We may increase the intracranial pressure.

33

What is herniation?

When the brain oozes into the formen magnum.

34

What is the term that means vomiting blood?

Hematemesis

35

What is the term that means coughing up blood?

Hemoptysis

36

What are signs of internal bleeding?

Injury to surface
Contusions, swelling, or deformities
Bleeding from orifice
Tender, rigid, distended abdomen
Hematemesis

37

How much blood can a patient lose in the abdomen/thorax?

Approx. 3 liters

38

How much blood can a patient lose in the pelvis?

Approx. 1.5 to 6 liters

39

How much blood can a patient lose in the femur?

Approx. 1.5 liters

40

What is the definition of shock?

Inadequate tissue profusion.

41

What happens in the body when a patient goes into shock?

Fight or flight responses are triggered
Epi and norepi are released

42

What is the body's response to shock?

⬆️ HR
⬆️ RR
⬆️ PR
Skins: pale cool and diaphoretic
Nauseated/vomiting
Thirsty

43

What are causes of shock?

Problems with the heart, vessels, or blood

44

What are the types of shock?

Hypovolemic and hemorrhagic shock

45

What are the three subtypes of shock?

Neurogenic
Anaphylactic
Cardiogenic

46

What are the three categories of shock?

Compensated
Decompensated
Irreversible

47

What are signs of compensated shock?

BP is normal
⬆️ HR
⬆️ RR
skins: pale/cool
Generalized weakness
Anxious and restless

48

What are signs of decompensated shock?

⬇️ BP
loss of peripheral pulses
⬇️RR
Altered mental status
Dilated pupils

49

What is UNK?

Unknown

50

What is PTA?

Prior to arrival

51

What is NKA?

No known allergies

52

What is CHART?

Chief complaint
History
Assessment
Rx - treatment
Transport

53

What is SOAP?

Subjective (relative)
Objective (facts)
Assessment
Plan

54

What is SBAR?

Situation
Background
Assessment
Recommendation

55

During a hospital call-in what occurs?

Identify yourself
Describe patient
Repeat any orders