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Flashcards in Cardiology I Deck (135):
0

What controls the opening and closing of the heart valves?

Chamber pressure.

1

What occurs during ventricular systole?

Contraction of the ventricles which sends blood to the body and lungs.

2

What occurs during ventricular diastole?

Relaxation of the ventricles which allows them to refill

3

What are the two left coronary arteries?

Anterior descending and circumflex arteries

4

What part of the heart does the circumflex artery supply?

It supplies the left and around the back of the heart

5

What is the right coronary artery?

Posterior interventricular artery

6

What vein does the heart empty into (coronary)?

The great coronary vein.

7

The vein that filters the heart is called the _____ and it empties into the _______.

Great coronary vein; right atrium.

8

What is the blood flow through the heart?

Vena cava
Right atrium
Tricuspid valve
Right ventricle
Pulmonary valve
Pulmonary artery
Lungs
Pulmonary vein
Left atrium
Bicuspid valve
Left ventricle
Aortic valve
Aorta
Body.

9

______ is the contraction of the ventricles.

Systole

10

______ is the period in which the ventricles fill with blood from the atria.

Diastole

11

What is the time of one contraction & one relaxation?

Cardiac cycle

12

What is the length of one cardiac cycle?

Approx. 0.8 seconds

13

What is the length of systole?

Approx. 0.2 seconds

14

What is the length of diastole?

Approx. 0.52 seconds

15

_____ is the measurement of the amounts of blood pumped out the ventricles.

Ejection fraction

16

Ejection fraction is the measurement of the amounts of what?

Blood pumped out the ventricles.

17

What is the normal value of ejection fraction?

55-70%

18

What part of the cardiac cycle lasts approximately 0.2 seconds?

Systole.

19

What part of the cardiac cycle lasts for approximately 0.52 seconds

Diastole

20

What lasts approximately 0.8 seconds?

One cardiac cycle

21

______ is the amount of blood pumped out of ventricles in a single beat.

Stroke volume.

22

___ is the pressure in the ventricles at the end of diastole.

Preload

23

What is preload?

The amount of pressure at the end of diastole.

24

Preload is directly affected by the volume of blood that what?

Returns to the right atrium

25

_____ is the resistance against which the heart must pump against.

Afterload

26

Afterload is what?

The resistance against which the heart must pump against.

27

What law deals with the stretching of the myocardia?

Sterling's Law

28

What does Sterling's law state?

The myocardium can be stretched and will return to its normal state, but if overworked (stretched too far) it will lose its ability to return to its normal state.

29

What is peripheral vascular resistance?

How much pressure is in the arterioles that the heart must pump against.

30

______ is the amount of pressure in the arterioles that the heart must pump against.

Peripheral vascular resistance

31

Peripheral vascular resistance is determined by what?

Vasoconstriction and vasodilation

32

What is the correlation between the heart rate and the amount of CO2?

⬆️ HR, ⬇️ CO2

33

What is the formula for blood pressure?

Blood pressure = CARDIAC OUTPUT x PERIPHERAL VASCULAR RESISTANCE

34

_____ is the flight or fight response whereas ____ is the rest and digest response

Sympathetic — fight or flight
Parasympathetic — rest and digest

35

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous responses are a part of what,

Autonomic

36

The receptors in the sympathetic nervous system are ___ and ___.

Alpha and beta

37

What chemical neurotransmitters are in the sympathetic nervous system?

Norepinephrine

38

What nerve endings are in the sympathetic nervous system?

Adrenergic

39

Alpha one receptors do what?

vasoconstriction which raises blood pressure

40

Alpha two receptors do what?

Stop vasoconstriction.

41

Beta one receptors are located where?

In the heart

42

Beta two receptors are located where?

In the lungs.

43

Beta two receptors cause what?

Bronchodilation and Vasodilation

44

What are the neurotransmitters for the parasympathetic nervous system?

Acetylcholine

45

Acetylcholine nerve endings are called what?

Cholinergic.

46

Cholinergic nerve endings are what?

Parasympathetic nerve fibers that use acetylcholine as neurotransmitters.

47

Adrenergic nerve endings are what?

Sympathetic nerve fibers that use epinephrine as neurotransmitters.

48

Myocardial working cells do what?

Generate the PHYSICAL contraction of heart cells.

49

What generates blood flow?

Physical contractions of myocardial working cells

50

What do pacemaker cells control?

Rate and rhythm by coordinating regular depolarization

51

Depolarization is…

Contractions of the heart.

52

What is the primers function of pacemaker cells?

To generate and conduct electrical impulses

53

A ____ is the point at which a stimulus will produce a cell response.

Threshold

54

What are the four cardiac cell characteristics?

Contractibility (mechanical)
Automaticity (electrical)
Excitability (electrical)
Conductivity (electrical)

55

_____ is the ability of the cardiac cells to shorten and cause muscle contraction.

Contractility

56

____ is the ability of the cardiac pacemaker cells to spontaneously generate electrical impulses w/o external stimulation.

Automaticity

57

____ is the ability of cardiac cells to respond to an electrical stimulus.

Excitability

58

_____ is the ability of cardiac cells to receive/transmit stimulus to other cardiac cells.

Conductivity

59

Where is the location of automaticity?

SA NODE, AV JUNCTION, PURKINJE FIBERS

60

_____ is a substance or compound whose molecules dissociate into charged components (ions)

Electrolytes.

61

_____ performs a vital part in depolarization of myocardium

Sodium

62

What occurs during cardiac depolarization?

Sodium ions rush into cell changing interio charge to positive after cell is stimulated.

63

What happens during cardiac repolarization?

Sodium ions returns to outside of the cell and potassium ions return to inside.

64

What is the charge of the inside and outside of the cell during resting membrane potential?

Negative inside
Positive outside

65

What occurs during action potential?

Changes in polarity produces change in cells.

66

____ are attempts to ensure muscle is totally relaxed before another depolarization can be initiated.

Refractory period

67

What is the refractory period for the atrial muscle?

0.15 seconds

68

What is the refractory period for the ventricular muscle?

0.25-0.3 seconds

69

Period of rest is called ____.

Cardiac repolarization

70

The ____ is the primary pacemaker of the heart.

SA node

71

What cardiac wave is caused by the SA node?

The P-Wave

72

What is the firing rate of the SA node?

60-100 BPM

73

What receives the impulse as it exits the SA node?

The internodal pathways

74

The internodal pathways deliver the impulse where?

From the SA node, throughout the atria, and to the AV node

75

What delivers the impulse from the left atrium to the right atrium?

Bachmann's bundle (wenckebach's bundle)

76

At the AV node electrical activity delays _____

0.05 seconds

77

Why does the impulse delay at the AV node?

To allow for complete filling of the ventricles

78

What is the firing rate of the AV node?

40-60 BPM

79

What is the secondary pacemaker?

AV node

80

Where is the bundle of his located?

The top of the interventricular septum

81

What is the firing rate of the bundle of his?

20-40 BPM

82

What is the firing rate of the purkinje network?

20-40 BPM

83

Where does the impulse go from the purkinje network?

To the ventricular muscle cells.

84

What is the pathway of electrical conduction in the heart?

SA node
Interventricular pathways
bachmann's bundle
AV node
Bundle of his
Left and right branches
Purkinje fibers
Ventricular muscle cells

85

EKG is the graphing of what activity in the heart?

Electricak

86

What is placed on the skin to sense electrical activity?

Electrodes

87

How is EKG recorded?

Electrocardiogram

88

The ____ are the pads that go on the patients skin whereas the ____ connect to the cardiac monitor.

Electrodes - skin
Leads - machine

89

Three leads are named because they must have what?

A positive, a negative and a ground

90

What is einthoven's triangle?

And imaginary inverted triangle formed around heart by proper positioning oft the bipolar leads.

91

Lead one goes where?

Left & right arm

92

Lead two goes where?

Left leg and right arm

93

Lead 3 goes where?

Left leg and arm

94

Time is measured on the ____ line of the ekg graph.

Horizontal.

95

Voltage is measured on the ___ line of the ekg paper

Vertical

96

One small box meaures ___ seconds

0.04 seconds.

97

PRI is how long ?

0.12-0.20 seconds

98

One large box is equal to how long?

0.20 seconds

99

QRS is how long?

Less than 0.12 seconds

100

The ____ is the beginning and ending of all waves

Isoelectric line

101

A _____ is above the isoelectric line.

Positive deflection

102

A ____ is below the isoelectric line.

Negative deflection.

103

The P wave is how long

10 seconds

104

What is the P wave

depolarization of the left and right atria

105

What is the PR interval

Start of the P wave to the start of the QRS complex

106

How long is the PRI?

0.12-0.20 seconds

107

The QRS complex represents what?

Ventricular depolarization

108

The S wave is how long?

Less than 0.12 seconds

109

The ST segment is what?

Ventricles are depolarizes and repolarization begins

110

Elevation and/or depression of the ST segment is indicative of what?

An acute myocardial infarction

111

STEMI is what?

An elevated ST segment

112

Angina is what?

A depressed ST segment

113

The T wave represents what?

Ventricular repolarization

114

The T wave is what phase of the cardiac cycle?

Resting phase

115

The P wave is what?

Atrial depolarization

116

The QRS complex is what?

Atrial repolarization/ventricular depolarization

117

The T wave is what?

Ventricular repolarization

118

What are causes of sinus arrhythmia?

MI
Sick Sinus Syndrome
Medications

119

What are causes of sinister arrest?

Hypoxia
Ischemia
Damage to SA node
Acute MI
digitalis & salicylates

120

What are causes of atrial dysrrhythmia?

COPD
Digitontoxitity
Electrolyte imbalances

121

What are the 5 steps to interpret EKGs?

HR
Heart Rhythm
P wave
PRI
QRS Complex

122

What are causes of PACs?

Increased sympathetic tone
Digitalis toxicity
Hypoxia
Stimulants
Caffeine

123

How many PACs must happen for they to be called frequent?

More than 6

124

Two sequential PACs is called a…

Couplet

125

When every other beat is a PAC that is called…

Atrial bigemity

126

Every third beat being a PAC is called what?

Atrial trigemity

127

What is the reactivation of myocardial tissue for a second or subsequent time by the same impulse?

ReEntry dysrrhythmia

128

What causes the short circuit of electrical conduction?

A delay or block

129

What are causes of reentry dysrhythmias?

Hyperkalemia
Myocardial ischemia
Certain antidysrhythmia meds

130

What type of rhythms are reentry dysrhythmias?

A-flutter
A-fibrillation
PAC
PSVT
SVT

131

What are 3 characteristics of A-Fibrillation

There are no p waves
F waves replace p waves
Ventricle response is irregularly irregular

132

What are causes of Atrial fibrillation?

Heart disease
CHF
Rheumatic heart disease
Hypoxia
Digitalis toxicity
Electrolyte imbalance

133

When your patient is in A-fibrillation and their heart rate is greater than 100 they are considered ______ if their heart rate is less than 100 they are considered _______.

Unstable; stable

134

When you cardiovert a patient you use how many J?

50