What is attention?
Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
What is structural encoding?
Structural encoding is relatively shallow processing that emphasizes
the physical structure of the stimulus. For example, if words are flashed on a screen, structural encoding registers such things as how the words are printed (capital,
lowercase, and so on) or their length (how many letters).
What is phenomic encoding?
Further analysis may result in
phonemic encoding, which emphasizes what a word sounds like. Phonemic encoding involves naming or saying (perhaps silently) the words.
What is semantic encoding?
Finally, semantic encoding emphasizes
the meaning of verbal input; it involves thinking about the objects and actions the
What is the levels-of-processing theory?
Levels-of-processing theory proposes that deeper levels of processing
result in longer-lasting memory codes.
What processes can enrich enocding?
- Visual imagery
- Motivation to remember
linking of a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
Describe the concept of visual imagery
Imagery—the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered—can also be used to enrich encoding
Describe dual coding theory
Dual coding theory holds that memory is enhanced by forming both semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall.
Describe motivation to remember
Another factor that appears to influence encoding effectiveness is one’s motivation to remember (MTR) at the time of encoding. When MTR is high at the time of encoding— typically because the information is perceived to be important—people are more likely to exert extra effort to attend to and organize information in ways that facilitate future recall.