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Describe the Atkinson and Shiffrin model of memory storage.

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1971) proposed that memory is made up of three
information stores. Sensory memory can hold a large amount of information just long enough (a fraction of a second) for a small portion of it to be selected for longer storage. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, and unless aided by rehearsal, its storage duration is brief. Long-term memory can store an apparently unlimited amount of information for indeterminate periods.


What is sensory memory?

Sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time,
usually only a fraction of a second.


What is short term memory?

Short-term memory (STM) is a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed
information for up to about 20 seconds.


What is rehearsal?

rehearsal—the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information.


What is a chunk?

A chunk is a
group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit.


What is working memory?

working memory—a modular system for temporary storage and manipulation
of information.


What are the components of working memory?

According to Baddeley (2001), working memory includes four components: a phonological loop, a visuospatial sketchpad, a central executive system, and an
episodic buffer.


Describe the phonological loop

The first component is the phonological loop, which represented all of short-term memory in earlier models. This component is at work when you use recitation to temporarily hold onto a phone number. Baddeley (2003) believes that the phonological loop evolved to foster the acquisition of language.


Describe the visuospatial sketchpad

The second component in working memory is a visuospatial
sketchpad that permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images.
This component is at work when you try to mentally rearrange the furniture in
your bedroom.


Describe the central executive system

The third component is the central executive system. It controls
the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention,
as needed.


Describe the episodic buffer

The fourth component is the episodic buffer, a temporary, limited
capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to
integrate information and that serves as an interface between working memory
and long-term memory.


What is working memort capcity?

Working memory capacity (WMC) refers to one’s ability
to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention.


What is long-term memory?

Long-term memory (LTM) is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information
over lengthy periods of time.


What are flashbulb memories?

flashbulb memories, which are thought to be unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events


What is a conceptual hierarchy?

A conceptual hierarchy is a multilevel classification system based on common
properties among items.


What is clustering?

clustering—the tendency to remember
similar items in groups.


What is a schema?

A schema is an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event.


What is a semantic network?

A semantic network consists of nodes representing
concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts.