What are nonsense syllables?
nonsense syllables—consonant-vowel-consonant arrangements that do not correspond to words
What is a forgetting curve?
graphs retention and forgetting over time
Describe Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve for nonsense
Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve for nonsense
syllables. From his experiments on himself,
Ebbinghaus (1885) concluded that forgetting is
extremely rapid immediately after the original
learning and then levels off. Although this generalization
remains true, subsequent research
has shown that forgetting curves for nonsense
syllables are unusually stee
What is retention?
Retention refers to the proportion
of material retained (remembered)
What is a recall measure?
measure requires participants to reproduce information on their own without any
What is a recognition measure?
A recognition measure of retention
requires participants to select previously learned information from an array of
What is a relearning measure?
A relearning measure
of retention requires a participant to memorize information a second
time to determine how much time or effort is saved by having learned it
What is pseudoforgetting (ineffective encoding)?
Pseudoforgetting is usually attributable to lack of attention.
What does decay theory propose?
Decay theory proposes that forgetting occurs because memory
traces fade with time.
What does interference theory propose?
Interference theory proposes that people forget information because of competition
from other material.
What is retroactive interference?
Retroactive interference occurs when new information impairs the retention of
previously learned information
What is proactive interference?
proactive interference occurs when previously learned information interferes
with the retention of new information
What is the encoding specificiy principle?
The encoding specificity principle states that the value of
a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code.
What does repression refer to?
repression refers to
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious