Flashcards in End of Year Exam Year 11 Deck (28)
Process of Fertilisation
Fertilisation (or conception) is the beginning of human development.
Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. The result of this union is the production of a zygote cell, or fertilized egg, initiating prenatal development.
Stages of lifespan and their age spans
Prenatal - conception to birth
Infancy - birth to 18 months
Toddlerhood/Early Childhood - 18 months to 3 years
Childhood - 3 years to 12 years
Adolescence - 12 to 18 years
Early Adulthood - 18 years to 39
Middle Adulthood - 40 to 64 years
Late Adulthood - 65+
Describe how you would explain the PBS to Emershan and outline 1 example of how it might help to promote his health and wellbeing
PBS would help Emershan as it would subsidise the cost of his prescription medication as it would be costly for his heart condition. The PBS is equitable as they help people with a chronic disease, such as Emershan has, as they often pay a lot more for their medication, so the government then helps this by making Australian citizens have access to cheaper prescription medication for their health needs. An example of how it may promote his health and wellbeing would be that they may feel much better about themselves due to having such access to this service and providing them with health benefits which could boost his mental health and wellbeing.
PHI advantages and disadvantages
- Access to private hospitals
- Assists the Australian government to address the increasing costs and burden on Medicare
- With extras cover people can access ancillary services
- Shorter waiting periods
- Choice of doctor
- Costly for individuals and families
- Out of pocket expenses for some services
- Qualifying waiting period for some services
Issues to consider when introducing new medical procedures and technologies
Equity of Access
Freedom of choice
When deciding on the ethics of a particular
medical technology, individuals need to draw
upon their morals (their beliefs about what is
right and wrong) and consider who will be
affected by the technology as well as how
they themselves will be affected (risks versus
In Australian society, people from
various backgrounds have different views on
complex issues surrounding the use of medical
technologies. These values might be influenced
by an individual’s morality and values, their
culture, religion, personal views and family
experiences. They can also be influenced by how
much knowledge they have on the issue and
their understanding of it.
Equity of Access
Equity is more than about ensuring that all
people have access to the services they need;
it is about ensuring that those who are most in
need, get extra help to reduce the inequity they
For example, in the case of the PBS, all
people with an illness who are eligible for Medicare can access some prescription medications at a
subsidised cost, which is an example of equality.
The PBS takes this one step further to promote
equity by implementing the PBS safety net to
protect those who require more medications
from the higher cost of medication.
When looking again at the issue of 3D printing of bones,
there are some questions that need to be asked
to evaluate the equity of this technology, such
as whether this medical technology will be
available to everyone, especially those who are
most in need, or whether it will only be available
to those who can afford it
Having one’s privacy respected is an important
issue relating to healthcare, and is a fundamental
human right recognised in the United Nations
Declaration of Human Rights. Privacy underpins
human dignity, and there are four main facets
1 information privacy – this is about
developing rules that protect the collection
and handling of personal data, such as
2 bodily privacy – this is about protecting
people against invasive or inappropriate
3 privacy of communications – this is about
protecting the privacy of mail, telephones,
email and other forms of communication
4 territorial privacy – this is about protecting
people in their environment, such as
preventing intrusion into the home or other
environments such as the workplace.
It is essential when new medical technologies
are introduced that the privacy of patients is
When referring to medical technology or
procedures, invasiveness refers to a procedure
that involves invading the body, such as operating on a body or examining inside of the body.
People have the right to have their privacy and
dignity respected. New technologies should
provide consideration regarding how invasive
the procedure is going to be and weigh this up
against the potential benefits.
Freedom of Choice
One of the rights identified in the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights in Victoria is participation. This is a right to be included in decisions and to make choices about your healthcare. It is important that, with any new technology, people have all the relevant information about the risks and benefits of the procedure to enable them to make informed choices about their own healthcare. Having a choice about your healthcare is a significant determinant in people having a positive perception of their own health.
Factors affecting access to health services and information
Opportunities of using digital media in the promotion of health and wellbeing information
- Often inexpensive
- Allow for privacy or anonymity
- Often available 24 hours a day, seven days a week
- Available when you need the information, without having to wait for appointments
- Often available in a range of languages
Challenges of using digital media in the promotion of health and wellbeing information
- Not having face-to-face contact can leave room for
misinterpretation of information
- Can promote self-diagnosis of patients, which can
lead to unnecessary stress
- Can be difficult to determine the reliability of
Services available in the local community
to support health and wellbeing
- GP2U (offers online gp consultations)
- Health Direct (provides info on a range of health topics)
- Reach out (an online initiative offering
information, resources and support to help
young people improve their understanding
of mental health, build resilience, and
increase coping skills and help-seeking
Telephone Counselling Services:
- Nurse on Call
-Kids help line
- SANE Australia
- Medicines Line
Mental Health Services:
- Black Dog Institute
- Just Ask Us (drug or alcohol problem)
Preventative health services
• the Heart Foundation
• the Cancer Council
• Diabetes Australia
• Asthma Australia
• the Transport Accident Commission
• the National Aboriginal Community
Controlled Health Organisation (NACCHO).
Traditional medical or health services
Traditional medical and health services refer
to services such as public hospitals, private
hospitals, general practitioners, dental, obstetric,
optometry, chiropractic, radiation, physiotherapy,
podiatry, psychology and pharmacy services.
These are often accessed directly by individuals,
either with or without a referral from a general
practitioner (depending on the service type).
These services are able to support a range of
dimensions of health and wellbeing, depending
on the specific service.
For example, dental services are able to promote physical health and wellbeing by ensuring that teeth remain healthy and free from cavities, and also educate
individuals about how to care for their teeth to
prevent further damage.
Other services, such as psychology services, can promote mental, emotional and spiritual health and wellbeing, again depending on the needs of the individual and the type of service offered.
Community health services
Community health centres are designed to meet
the specific health needs of the local community.
They generally offer a range of services and
supports, and operate a range of programs.
Community health centres are based in local
municipalities or regions in both metropolitan
and rural areas.
The changes that relate to people’s size and shape, and therefore body structure. e.g. puberty and growing, motor skills, complexity of body systems
Refers to feelings and moods, and the ways in which people express, understand and exercise control over them. e.g. controlling and managing emotions and impulses
Also referred to as cognitive development; the ways in which people are able to think and reason. e.g. thinking abstractly and considering thoughts and opinions
Prenatal Development Stages
key events and timeline
conception to implantation (end of week 2)
Involves several different processes that change an egg and sperm first into a zygote, and then into an embryo. The processes include fertilization, cleavage, blastulation, and implantation
key events and timeline
Implantation (week 2) until week 8
- Cell differentiation
- Having major body systems begin to develop including the nervous system, respiratory system and circulatory system
Week 8 till birth
Extensive growth and mass of the development of the organ systems that were established in the embryonic stage.
How can nutrition impact a mother's baby when pregnant
Nutrition can affect prenatal development as what the mother consumes will fundamentally shape the child in terms of health, development and possibly even weight. If the mother had a bad diet or included food items not recommended to pregnant women, this could ultimately impact the infant before it is even born.
Cell differentiation is how the cells form 3 layers which ultimately lead to the infant’s different organs and tissues.
Risk and Protective Factors of Prenatal Development/Pregnancy
- illnesses, infections, deficiencies, prematurity, low birth weight, toxin exposures (health issues), smoking, alcohol, drugs, income, parental health and disability
- vaccinations, maternal diet, parental education, access to healthcare