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Flashcards in Unit 3 AOS 1 Test Deck (43)
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Health and wellbeing

Overall state of a person's physical, emotional, mental, social and spiritual being



A subjective concept related to a personal experience of a disease



Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and its systems. It includes the physical capacity to perform daily activities or tasks.
> Regular physical activity
> Consuming a balanced diet
> Having appropriate rest/sleep
> The absence of illness, disease or injury
> Maintaining an ideal body weight



Relates to the ability to express feelings in a positive way.

> Positive management and expression of emotional actions and reactions
> Ability to display resilience
> The degree to which you feel emotionally secure and relaxed in everyday life

(more visual than mental h+w)



The current state of wellbeing relating to the mind or brain

> The ability to think and process information
> A mentally healthy brain enables an individual to positively form opinions, make decisions and use logic
> Wellness of the mind rather than illness
> Low levels of stress and anxiety
> Positive self-esteem
> A sense of confidence and optimism

(hidden, less visual than emotional h+w)



Concerned with how individuals interact with others and within the broader community.

It also related to being able to maintain positive and meaningful relationships.

It also includes the level fo support provided by family and within a community to ensure that every person has an equal opportunity to function as a contributing member of the society.

> Strong communication skills
> Empathy for others
> A sense of personal accountability



Relates to ideas, beliefs and values, and ethics that arise in the minds and conscience of individuals.

Spiritual health and wellbeing is not solely connected to religion but encompasses a broader sense of meaning and purpose which may be found in practices such as yoga and meditation.

> Hope and peace
> A guiding sense of meaning or value
> A sense of belonging and reflection on your place in the world



Refers to the concept that the state of health and wellbeing is constantly changing.

Changes can occur quickly in response to a range or internal and external factors
e.g. illness, injury, relationship breakdown.



Health and wellbeing is also considered as SUBJECTIVE in nature and is often influenced by personal feelings and opinions; it is the way an individual perceived their own health and wellbeing


Individual benefits and importance of optimal h+w

When an individual is experiencing optimal health and wellbeing they are able to participate effectively in daily life and productively complete their chosen activities e.g. work, study, sporting endeavours and leisure pursuits

> Experience and participate in meaningful relationships
> Participate in sporting, recreational and leisure activities
> Work and study effectively including participation in school
> Contributing to family life and raising children
> Undertaking daily routines


National benefits and importance of optimal h+w

- Health system savings; less reliance on health system, less money spent on doctor’s appointments, medications etc.
- Increased productivity; individuals are more likely to be engaged and work to the best of their ability when health and wellbeing is optimal.
- Higher average incomes; optimal health and wellbeing allow individuals to work and earn an income; increases the economy of the country and therefore incomes.
- Reduced stress and anxiety in the community; surrounding premature deaths and illnesses for individuals and their loved ones.
- Increased social participation; increases a sense of belonging within the community.
- Fewer people relying on social security
- Longer healthier lives
- More money can be put towards education, improving infrastructure (housing and transport) provides social security for those experiencing hardship.


Global benefits and importance of optimal h+w

- Reduces risk of disease transmission between countries; reduces the risk of pandemics which have significant consequences for the global population; increased rates of illness, premature death, reduced workforce participation and productivity, school closures, breakdown of law and order.
Focus shifts from daily activities to survival.
- Assists in promoting peace and stability; optimal global health leads to a greater likelihood of individuals to work for the benefit of themselves, the country and the planet, allowing individuals access to resources necessary for a decent standard of living.
- Promotes social and economic development; when health and wellbeing is optimal people can focus on education or thrive in a manner that will promote development and sustainability.
- Promotes sustainability; when people’s needs are met and feel good about themselves, they are more likely to live their lives in a sustainable manner


9 Prerequisites for health

Stable ecosystem
Sustainable resources
Social justice



The absence of conflict


Peace promoting PEMMS

- Decreased risk of premature death, serious injury, disability.
- Access to food and water lowers the risk of disease.
Therefore, promoting physical health and wellbeing.

- Reduction in levels of stress and anxiety surrounding the conflict.
Therefore, promoting mental health and wellbeing.

- More peaceful environment increases the ability of people to move freely around their community and go about their daily activities (working, accessing food, schooling, socialising) and hence pursue their purpose in life.
- Peace promotes the preservation of infrastructure (roads, transportation systems, agriculture, water, electricity systems, healthcare facilities, schools and places of employment).
- These institutions provide opportunities for socialisation and leisure activities
- They allow people to feel safe and secure, promoting feelings of belonging in the community.
Therefore, promoting spiritual and social health and wellbeing.

- A peaceful country increases the capacity of governments to provide resources and services
such as education, healthcare, trade development and social security
Therefore, promoting social and economic development which in turn promotes optimal health and



Describes a structure that provides protection from the outside environment. Adequate shelter is a basic human right.


Shelter promoting PEMMS

- Protection from extreme weather events reduces risk of illness and premature death as well as the likelihood of the spread of infectious diseases.
Therefore, promoting physical health and wellbeing.

- Reduced stress and anxiety surrounding exposure to extreme weather, privacy and safety and security.
- Less fear surrounding crimes against people (theft, assault). Therefore, promoting mental health and wellbeing.

- Adequate sleep increases an individual’s ability to focus on employment or education, increasing the capacity of an individual to participate in activities that add value to life.
- Shelter facilities education by providing individuals with a place to study and prepare.
- More time to pursue a meaningful and purposeful life as they aren’t searching for a place to
sleep or protection; adds stability.
Therefore, promoting social and spiritual health and wellbeing.



To learn. Educated people often have greater access to the resources required to experience high levels of health and wellbeing.


Education promoting PEMMS

- Empowers individuals
- Promotes self-esteem
- Provides a sense of purpose and meaning in life
Therefore, promoting spiritual health and wellbeing.

- Increases ability to earn an income
- Obtaining meaningful and well-paid employment, leads to an ability to afford resources such
as food, shelter and healthcare
Therefore, promoting physical health and wellbeing.

- Increases literacy and one’s ability to understand health promotion messages and exhibit healthy behaviours such as eating well, exercising, maintaining social connections and accessing healthcare.



An essential requirement for life; also, a basic human right.


Food promoting PEMMS

- Food security increases the ability of individuals to consume the required nutrients, which is important for the functioning of the body.
- Reduces the risk of malnutrition.
- Reduces levels of stress and anxiety if food is available.
Therefore, promoting physical and mental health and wellbeing.

- Access to appropriate and nutritious foods helps to provide adequate energy levels, increasing
capacity to attend school, or work therefore resulting in an education or income. Therefore, contributing to the improvement of the economy of a country.

- Intellectual capacities improve when education is supplied, allowing for acquirement of better jobs, therefore promoting the practise of healthy habits such as hygiene, regular exercise and the intake of certain nutrients.
- Adequate nutrition improves functioning of the immune system Therefore, promoting physical health and wellbeing.

- Food insecurity takes time away from individuals to partake in activities that promote health such as attending school or work, or the pursuit of leisure activities
Therefore, contributing to poor social health and wellbeing.



Money earnt


Income promoting PEMMS

- Increases ability to afford resources such as healthcare, recreation, transport and education. Adequate population income increases the capacity of governments to provide social services and
resources therefore promoting various dimensions of health and wellbeing.

- Having a decent and reliable income allows to more easily afford healthcare such as
immunisations, surgeries and medications.
As a result, many conditions can be actively prevented and treated, promoting physical health and

- Having access to money means people are able to afford activities they enjoy such as recreational pursuits and socialising.
Therefore, promoting social health and wellbeing.

- Transportation is often required to access a range of resources such as education,
employment, recreation, healthcare and food.
These then enhance many dimensions of health and wellbeing.

- Income and education form a cycle; those with higher incomes can often afford higher levels of education which therefore increase the ability of those to earn higher incomes.
Both contribute to improved health incomes.

- Governments receive income from taxes; when average incomes are high, the revenue that the government has available to spend on services is also likely to be high. Governments are responsible for providing a range of resources that promote health and wellbeing:

- Public housing (shelter)
- Basic health care and education systems
- Social security
- Infrastructure
- Recreational facilities
- Police force and judicial system to maintain order


Stable Ecosystem

A community that consists of all living and non-living components of a particular area.


Stable ecosystem promoting PEMMS

- A stable ecosystem is achieved when balance is achieved between the environment and the species that live in an environment.
- Stability indicates that all living things are having their needs for food, water, shelter and reproduction met without detrimental impacts to the natural environments

Humans rely on:
- Plants and animals for food
- Plants and animals provide opportunities for employment (fishing, agriculture)
- Predictable weather patterns contribute to effective farming
- Human shelter is often made from natural resources (timber, stone)
- Clean water and air
- Sources of renewable energy (wind, water, waves)
- Natural fibres using for clothing
- Natural environments are used for relaxation and recreation; contributes to feelings of
connectedness to the natural world

A balanced ecosystem means that resources are able for human use and regeneration.


Sustainable resources

“Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”


Sustainable resources promoting PEMMS

- Ensuring that the resources used to promote health and wellbeing in the present are available for future generations, so they too can experience a good quality of life.
- Materials such as food/water supply, energy production, employment, housing and healthcare must be sustained if current standards of health and wellbeing are to be maintained.
- Sustainable energy production such as wind and solar power will assist in satisfying energy needs into the future; providing resources such as heating, cooling, electricity
- These resources are often required to engage in activities such as education, employment and sleep;
promotes productivity
This leads to feelings of contentment and therefore, improves emotional health and wellbeing.

- Sustainable use of land and water is required to ensure that future generations have reliable
food and water supplies to prevent diseases. Therefore, promoting physical health and wellbeing.

- Forests provide resources such as timber for building shelter, fibres for clothing and substances for medicinal practises.


Social Justice

“Equal rights for all, regardless of personal traits such as sex, class, income, ethnicity, religion, age or sexual orientation.”


Social justice promoting PEMMS

- All people are treated fairly
- Includes celebrating diversity and promoting health and wellbeing of all people
- Economic justice: poverty and discrimination are targeted to improve the lives of those
subject to injustice

Australia’s governments concept of social justice reflects understanding:
- A fair distribution of economic resources
- Equal access to essential services such as housing, healthcare and education
- Equal rights in civil, legal and industrial affairs
- Equal opportunity for participation by all in personal development, community life and
decision making

When society is just all people have access to resources and opportunities that aid in promoting their health.



Relates to fairness in relation to acceptable quality and standard of living and social justice