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Flashcards in ENDOCRINE Deck (60):
1

Which 2 drugs block thyroid peroxidase and therefore organification?

Propylthiouracil and Methimazole

1

What is unique about propylthiouracil vs. methimazole?

Propylthiouracil also blocks the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 by blocking 5' deiodinase

1

What drug can cause nephrogenic DI and tooth abnormalities?

Demeclocycline it is a member of tetracycline family

1

What are the short acting insulins?

Regular insulin

1

What drug is a biguanide?

metformin

1

What is the MOA of the glitazones/thiazolidinediones?

They increase peripheral insulin sensitivity by binding trascription factor PPAR-gamma

2

What kind of drugs are pioglitazone and rosiglitazone?

Glitazones/Thizolidinediones

3

Which thyroid peroxidase inhibitor is a potential teratogen? Which can cause hepatotoxicity?

Teratogen = methimazole; Hepatotoxcity = propylthiouracil

4

What kind of drug is metformin?

Biguanide

5

What is demclocycline used to Tx? What can it cause?

Tx SIADH can cause nephrogenic DI

6

What kind of drugs are glargine and detemir?

long-acting insulins

7

Name 3 second generation sulfonylureas

Glyburide, Glimepiride, and Glipizide

9

MOA of methimazole

Thyroid peroxidase inhibitor

9

What kind of drugs are chlorpropamide and tolbutamide?

first generation sulfonylureas

9

What kind of drugs are exanatide and liraglutide? MOA?

GLP-1 analogs; act as incretins to increase insulin release and decrease glucagon

10

What treats central diabetes insipidus? What treats nephrogenic?

DDAVP (desmopressin); Thiazide diuretics

12

What diabetes drug can also treat life-threatening hyperkalemia?

any of the insulins (insulin pulls K back into cells)

13

What are the 3 rapid-acting insulins?

Lispro, Aspart, and Glulisine

14

2 indications for adminstration of growth hormone

GH deficiency and Turner syndrome

14

What can be caused by chronic use of glucocorticoids? What about chronic use with abrupt stoppage?

Iatrogenic Cushing's; Adrenocortical insufficiency

16

What blood disorder can be treated with the same drug that treats central diabetes insipidus?

Von Willebrand Disease (DDAVP causes release of vWF from Weibel Palade bodies in endothelium)

17

What kind of drugs are glulisine, lispro, and aspart?

Rapid acting insulins

17

Which diabetes drugs are likely to cause weight gain?

Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone (glitazones/thiazolidinediones)

18

What 2 drugs are used to replace thyroxine?

Levothyroxine (T4) and Triiodiothyronine (T3)

18

What kind of drugs are glyburide, glimepiride, and glipizide?

second generation sulfonylureas

19

Which diabetic medication can cause pancreatitis?

Exanatide and Liraglutide (GLP-1 analogs)

20

What are the 2 long actin insulins?

Glargine and Detemir

21

Why is metforin contraindicated in renal failure?

Because it causes a metabolic acidosis that the kidneys would not be able to handle

22

What is the intermediate acting insulin?

NPH insulin

23

What kind of drug is triamcinolone?

Glucocorticoid

25

Compare the AE of first generation sulfonylureas to second generation sulfonylureas

First generation = disulfiram like reaction; second generation = hypoglycemia

27

What kind of drug is miglitol?

alpha-glucosidase inhibitor

27

which drugs decrease post-prandial hyperglycemia?

acarbose and miglitol

29

What are the AE of the glitazones/thiazolidinediones? (4)

Weight gain, Hepatotoxicity, Heart failure, Edema

31

What are the AE of insulin drugs?

Hypoglycemia (rarely = hypersensitivity)

32

Name 2 first generation Sulfonylureas

Tolbutamide and Chlorpropamide

32

What is the AE of chlorpropamide and tolbutamide?

First generation sulfonylureas = disulfiram like rxn

34

What kind of drug is pramlintide?

An amylin analog (decreases glucagon)

35

What are the AE of metformin?

GI upset, more seriously = lactic acidosis

37

Name 2 alpha-glucosidae inhibitors

acarbose and miglitol

38

Name 3 DPP-4 inhibitors

linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin

39

AE of GLP-1 analogs?

PANCREATITIS, N/V

40

What is the MOA of sulfonylureas?

Close the K channel on Beta cells of pancreas leading to depolarization of the cell and release of ENDOGENOUS insulin; thus, they require some islet fxn to work

41

Which thyroid drug can cause hepatotoxicity?

propylthiouracil (thyroid peroxidase inhibitor)

42

What 2 drugs increase insulin sensitivity by binding to PPAR-gamma?

Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone

43

Name 2 glitazones/thiazolidinediones

Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone

46

What kind of drug is NPH insulin?

Intermediate acting insulin

47

Which drug is DOC for type II DM?

Metformin (a biguanide)

49

What are the AE of levothyroxine and triiodothyronine?

Tremors, Heat intolerance, tachycardia, arrhythmias (upregulate B1 receptors on heart)

50

Which endocrine drugs have a disulfiram like reaction?

first generation sulfonylureas-- chlorpropamide and tolbutamide

51

What is the MOA of acarbose and miglitol?

Inhibit alpha-glucosidase on intestinal brushborder to SLOW sugar absorption

52

What is the AE of glyburide, glimipiride, and glipizide?

second generation sulfonylureas = hypoglycemia

53

Which thryoid peroxidase inhibitor does NOT decrease peripheral converision of T4 to T3?

Methimazole

54

Which 2 drugs are GLP-1 analogs?

Exanatide and Liraglutide (GLP-1 is an incretin)

55

MOA of propylthiouracil

Thyroid peroxidase inhibitor

56

What kind of drugs end in gliptin?

DPP-4 inhibitors

57

Which adrenocortical disease can glucocorticoids be used to treat?

Addison's disease

58

What are 5 clinical uses of octreotide?

Acute bleeding of esophageal varices, Acromegaly, Insulinoma, Glucagonoma, Gastrinoma, and Carcinoid

59

What kind of drug is regular insulin?

A short acting insulin

60

What kind of genes are regulated by PPAR-gamma? What drugs affect this nuclear regulator?

insulin and fatty acid storage (adiponectin); the glitazones/thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone)