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Flashcards in RESPIRATORY Deck (40):
1

What is the MOA of theophylline? What cardiac drug does it block the effect of?

bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase and increasing cAMP by decreasing its breakdown; adenosine

2

What is the MOA for omalizumab?

monoclonal anti-IgE antibody

3

What kind of drug is chlorpheneramine?

First Generation antihistamine

3

Salmeterol and formeterol are long acting beta 2 agonists with these 2 AE's:

tremor and arrhythmia

3

Why are montelukast and zafirlukast the best drugs for aspirin induced asthma?

Because in ASA-induced asthma, all of the arachidonic metabolites have been shunted into leukotriene synthesis since COX is blocked, since these drugs inhibit leukotrine receptors they will alleviate the effects

5

Why are second generation antihistamines less sedating than first generation?

Don?t cross the BBB

5

Which drug is used as muscarinic AGONIST in the asthma challenge test?

methacholine

6

Which respiratory drug is a person most likely to attempt to get high off of?

dextromethorphan

6

What is the MOA of methacholine?

Muscarinic agonist used in asthma challenge test

6

What drugs can be used to open obstructed eustachian tubes

pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine

7

What is the MOA of montelukast and zafirlukast?

block leukotriene receptors

8

Which drug is a methylxanthine and produces bronchodilation?

theophylline

9

Name 2 alpha agonist alpha-agonists used for colds

pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine

11

Name 3 second generation antihistamines

loratidine, fexofenadine, cetirizine

12

Which drugs block leukotriene receptors?

zafirlukast and montelukast

12

What drug is a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody?

omalizumab--binds mostly to the UNBOUND serum IgE

13

When is omalizumab indicated?

In chronic asthma that is REFRACTORY to inhaled steroids (beclamethasone, fluticasone) and long-acting B2 agonists (salmeterol, formoterol)

15

What 2 pathways are anti-asthmatic drugs targeting?

inflammation and parasympathetics as these both lead to bronchoconstriction

16

What is the MOA of gaunifenesin?

Thins respiratory secretions so functions as an expectorant but has NO effect on cough reflex

17

What is the MOA of dextromethorphan?

antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors (but it is also a mild codiene analog)

18

Which drug inhibits the synthesis of leukotrienes?

zileuton

19

What drugs are first line therapy for chronic asthma?

corticosteroids -- beclomethasone and fluticasone

20

Which drug competitively antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors for pulmonary hypertension?

Bosentan

22

Name the acute B2 agonist

albuterol

23

What are the AE of pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine?

hypertension and CNS stimulation and anxiety

24

Name 2 long acting beta2 agonists

salmeterol and formoterol

25

What is the toxicity of the first generation antihistamines?

sedation, antimuscarinic, anti-alpha-adrenergic

26

Which drug is also called Mucinex?

Guanifenesin

27

Beclomethasone and Fluticasone are useful in asthma by inhibiting production of this important transcription factor _________

NF- kappa B (NF-kB)

29

What is the MOA of N-acetylcysteine?

mucolytic used to loosen mucous plugs in cystic fibrosis patients and also used to treat overdose of acetaminophen by replenishing glutathione

30

Name 2 muscarinic antagonists used for asthma and COPD

ipratropium and tiotropium

31

What is the antidote for dextromethorphan overdose? Why?

Naloxone, because DXM is a mild opiate--synthetic codeine analog

32

What is the MOA of pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine?

alpha agonists so they decrease hyperemia by constricting blood vessels

34

What is the MOA of zileuton?

5-lipoxygenase inhibitor --i.e. prevents the SYNTHESIS of leukotrienes

35

What limits the use of theophylline?

a narrow therapeutic index, it causes cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity and is metabolized by P-450

36

Which drug is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist for asthma and COPD?

tiotropium

37

Which 2 classes of drugs ultimately increase cAMP in bronchial smooth muscle?

B2 agonists (activate cAMP synthesis) and methylxanthines (decrease cAMP degradation)

38

What is the MOA of bosentan?

competitive antagonist of endothelin-1 receptor in pulmonary vasculature, thus it is used for Tx of pulmonary hypertension

39

What is the MOA of cromolyn sodium?

Blocks a chloride channel to prevent mast cell degranulation

40

Which drug blocks a chloride channel to prevent mast cell degranulation?

Cromolyn sodium