Endocrine Anatomy Flashcards Preview

METABOLISM 2 > Endocrine Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Anatomy Deck (36):
1

Where do the pituitary veins drain to?

The cavernous sinus

2

Where is the pituitary gland located?

The pituitary gland lies in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone in the skull.

3

Outline the structure of the pituitary gland

The pituitary stalk (infundibulum) connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland, and the posterior lobe is continuous with the hypothalamus, consisting of the same tissue (neural) whereas the anterior gland is embryologically and functionally different.

4

What hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis)

ACTH, TSH, LH, FSH, PRL, GH and MSH

5

Describe the blood supply to the anterior pituitary gland

The superior hypophyseal artery comes from the hypothalamus and forms the primary plexus of vessels; this then becomes the hypophyseal portal vein which gives off a secondary plexus in the anterior lobe which consists of the efferent hypophyseal veins which drain to the cavernous sinus

6

Which hypothalamic nuclei is involved in the production of ADH?

Supraoptic nuclei

7

Which hypothalamic nuclei is involved in the production of oxytocin?

Paraventricular nuclei

8

What hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland?

ADH and oxytocin

9

What are the four main parts of the internal carotid artery?

Cervical portion, petrous portion, cavernous portion and cerebral portion

10

What artery runs through the cavernous sinus?

Internal carotid artery

11

Which nerves are located in the cavernous sinus

CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI

12

What hormones are secreted by the adrenal medulla?

Noradrenaline and adrenaline

13

What hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex?

Aldosterone, cortisol and corticosterone

14

Compare the appearance of the left and right adrenal glands

Right adrenal: pyramid-shaped (contact with liver and IVC)

Left adrenal: crescent-shaped due to compression from stomach, spleen and pancreas

15

Describe the arterial supply to the adrenal gland

Superior suprarenal artery - branches from the inferior phrenic artery

Middle suprarenal artery - a branch of the abdominal aorta (near base of SMA)

Inferior suprarenal artery - branch of the renal artery

16

From which artery is the superior suprarenal artery a branch?

Inferior phrenic artery

17

From which artery is the middle suprarenal artery a branch?

Abdominal aorta (near the base of SMA)

18

From which artery is the inferior suprarenal artery a branch?

Renal artery

19

Describe the venous drainage of the adrenal gland

Right adrenal gland drains directly into IVC, left adrenal gland drains into the left renal vein

20

Where is the zona glomerulosa found and what does it secrete?

Outermost layer of the adrenal cortex that is involved in the secretion of mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone

21

Where is the zona fasciculata found and what does it secrete?

Middle layer of the adrenal cortex that is involved in the secretion of glucocorticoids such as cortisol

22

Where is the zona reticularis found and what does it secrete?

Inner layer of the adrenal cortex that is involved in the secretion of androgens such as testosterone

23

At what approximate spinal level does the thyroid lie?

C5-T1

24

By what are the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland connected?

By the isthmus

25

Describe the arterial blood supply to the thyroid gland

Superior thyroid artery - this is a branch from the external carotid artery

Inferior thyroid artery - this is a branch from the thyrocervical trunk

Thyroid ima artery - this isn't always present but this stems from the brachiocephalic trunk

26

From what artery does the superior thyroid artery branch?

External carotid artery

27

From what artery does the superior thyroid artery branch?

Thyrocervical trunk (a branch from the subclavian artery)

28

Describe the venous drainage of the thyroid gland

Superior thyroid vein - this is a branch from the IJV

Middle thyroid vein - also a branch from the IJV

Inferior thyroid vein - this is a branch from the brachiocephalic vein

29

From what vein does the superior and middle thyroid vein branch?

Internal jugular vein

30

From what vein does the inferior thyroid vein branch?

Brachiocephalic vein

31

What does the prefix -omo stand for?

Relating to the shoulder

32

Name the four inferior strap muscles in the neck

Thyrohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid and sternohyoid

33

What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?

The secretion of powerful digestive enzymes into the small intestine

34

Where is the head of the pancreas found?

In the gastroduodenal flexure

35

Where is the tail of the pancreas found?

Extending towards the spleen

36

What two arteries supply the pancreas?

Coeliac trunk and superior mesenteric arteries