Flashcards in Micronutrients Deck (63)
What are micronutrients?
They are essential compounds that are required in small amounts in the diet; they consist of organic vitamins and inorganic trace elements.
What's the role of micronutrients generally?
Help to maintain general health as they may help in maintaining structure of the body, regulation in genetic control, act as antioxidants, coenzymes or cofactors to enable the body to perform its daily functions.
What are the two different types of vitamins?
Water-soluble and fat-soluble
What is the difference between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins?
Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored, but water-soluble vitamins usually act as coenzymes for reaction and cannot be stored, their excess is excreted in the urine
Name 4 fat-soluble vitamins
Vitamin A, D, E and K
Name 4 water-soluble vitamins
Vitamin B, C folate and biotin
Name 6 trace elements that are essential in the diet
Copper, zinc, selenium, iron, phosphate and calcium
What is a good dietary source of calcium?
Dairy products (milk and yoghurt etc.)
What is the consequence of calcium-deficiency?
Reduced bone mass and osteoporosis, paresthesia, muscle spasms, laryngeal spasm and convulsions, increased intracranial pressure, mental changes, Chvostek’s and Trousseau’s sign positives
What is the function of calcium in the body?
Mechanical stability of the skeleton, neuromuscular activity and signal transduction
What is a good dietary source of phosphate?
Seeds, nuts, lentils and soya
What is the function of phosphate in the body?
it is a component of structural proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, ATP and nucleic acids
What is the consequence of phosphate-deficiency?
Bone pain, pseudofractures, and proximal muscle weakness or, rickets and short stature in children neurological manifestations
What is a good dietary source of iron?
Red meat, dark vegetables and watermelon
What is the function of iron in the body?
Part of the haem protein and enzymes
What is the consequence of iron-deficiency?
What is a good dietary source of selenium?
Seafood, red meat and cereal
What is the function of selenium in the body?
Component of glutathione peroxidase and deiodinase enzymes
What is the consequence of selenium-deficiency?
Cardiomyopathy may occur
What is a good diary source of zinc?
Meat, shellfish, nuts and legumes
What is the function of zinc in the body?
Synthesis and stabilization of proteins, DNA, and RNA ; normal spermatogenesis, fetal growth, and embryonic development
What is the consequence of zinc-deficiency?
Growth retardation, alopecia, dermatitis, diarrhoea, immune dysfunction, gonadal atrophy, congenital malformations
What is a good dietary source of copper?
Shellfish, liver, legumes, bran and offal
What is the function of copper in the body?
Part of numerous enzymes for iron metabolism; melanin, elastin and collagen synthesis; and central nervous system function
What is the consequence of copper-deficiency in the body?
GROWTH RETARDATION, anemia, defective keratinization and pigmentation of hair, hypothermia, mental deterioration
What may be the consequence of vitamin-A deficiency?
Can lead to xerophthalmia - the abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva and the cornea of the eye
What may be the consequence of vitamin-D deficiency?
This can lead to rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults
What may be the consequence of vitamin-E deficiency?
This can lead to peripheral neuropathy
What may be the consequence of vitamin-K deficiency?
This can lead to coagulopathy (issues with clotting and the coagulation cascade)