Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (42):
What is exocrine?
releases products (enzymes) into ducts
What is endocrine
directly to bloodstream; no ducts
What are glands?
release products to bloodstream directly
What are hormones?
products deliver messaages to body
What are target cells?
have specific receptors for specific hormones
What is the hypothalamus (what do the hormones it makes control and where are these hormones stored)?
the hypthalamus makes hormones that control the pituitary gland
stored in the pituitary gland
What does the pituitary gland produce?
hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands
How many parathyroid glands are there?
What do the parathyroid release? What does it do?
-regulates the level of calcium in the blood
What does the thymus release during childhood? What does it do?
-stimulates T-cell development
What do the adrenal glands release? What does this help the body deal with?
-epinephrine and nonepinephrine
-helps body deal with stress
What does the pineal gland release and what is it involved in?
involved in rhythmic activities, such as daily sleep-wake cycles
What does the thyroid do and what does this regulate?
What does the pancreas produce and what does this regulate?
-produce insulin and glucagon
-regulate the level of glucose in blood
What does the ovaries produce? What are these things required for?
-produce estrogen and progesterone
-estrogen: required for the development of secondary sex characteristics and for the developement of eggs
-progesterone: prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg
What do the testes produce? What is it responsible for?
-responsible for sperm production and the development of male secondary sex characteristics
What does the master gland control?
controls the other endocrine glands
What happens if there is too much or too little growth hormone?
What does antidiuretic do?
stimulates kidneys to keep water
The hypothalamus is....part of the____attatched to____.
The hypothalamus controls____secretions.
What does the thyroid regulate?
metabolism and energy balance
What are the two thyroid hormones and what do they do?
-thyroxine (regulates body energy use)
-calcitonin (one hormone that regulates calcium and phosphate in blood)
What do PTH (parathyroid hormones) increase?
calcium, phosphate, and magnesium absorption in intestines
PTH causes bones to release____and____
PTH causes removal of____and____from____by____.
What increases the making of Vitamin D in body?
What does our body use feedback mechanism to maintain?
homeostasis within our body
What are the parts of the adrenal gland (or kidney???) confused.... also, what do they do?
cortex (produces more than 2 dozen steroid hromones called corticosteriods)
medulla (fight or flight, epinphrine and nonepinephrine)
What are the two ways to regulate glucose?
1) eating regularly
2) hormone adjustments
What did the pancrease do in digestion?
Does the pancrease release hormones?
What do pancreatic hormones regulate?
blood sugar level before and after meales
What are islets?
clusters of cells in pancreas
secrete glucagon (increase in sugar)
secrete insulin (decrease sugar)
What happens between meals?
Pancrease secretes what?
Liver changes what?
Glucose sent where?
blood glucose low -->pancrease secretes glucagon--> liver changes glycogen to glucose--> glucose sent to target tissues
What happens after a meal?
Pancrease secretes what?
Glucose goves where?
blood glucose high-->pancrease secretes insulin-->glucose goes to the liver (glycogen) and goes to target tissues
Diabetes: are sugar levels in blood high or low?
What do diabetics not produce enough of to control blood sugar?
What do they have to have injections of (diabetes)?