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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (42):
1

What is exocrine?

releases products (enzymes) into ducts

2

What is endocrine

directly to bloodstream; no ducts

3

What are glands?

release products to bloodstream directly

4

What are hormones?

products deliver messaages to body

5

What are target cells?

have specific receptors for specific hormones

6

What is the hypothalamus (what do the hormones it makes control and where are these hormones stored)?

the hypthalamus makes hormones that control the pituitary gland
stored in the pituitary gland

7

What does the pituitary gland produce?

hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands

8

How many parathyroid glands are there?

4

9

What do the parathyroid release? What does it do?

-parathyroid hormone
-regulates the level of calcium in the blood

10

What does the thymus release during childhood? What does it do?

-thymosin
-stimulates T-cell development

11

What do the adrenal glands release? What does this help the body deal with?

-epinephrine and nonepinephrine
-helps body deal with stress

12

What does the pineal gland release and what is it involved in?

-release melatonin
involved in rhythmic activities, such as daily sleep-wake cycles

13

What does the thyroid do and what does this regulate?

-thyroxine
-regulates metabolism

14

What does the pancreas produce and what does this regulate?

-produce insulin and glucagon
-regulate the level of glucose in blood

15

What does the ovaries produce? What are these things required for?

-produce estrogen and progesterone
-estrogen: required for the development of secondary sex characteristics and for the developement of eggs
-progesterone: prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg

16

What do the testes produce? What is it responsible for?

-testosterone
-responsible for sperm production and the development of male secondary sex characteristics

17

What does the master gland control?

controls the other endocrine glands

18

What happens if there is too much or too little growth hormone?

-gigantism
-dwarfism

19

What does antidiuretic do?

stimulates kidneys to keep water

20

The hypothalamus is....part of the____attatched to____.

-brain
-pituitary

21

The hypothalamus controls____secretions.

-pituitary

22

What does the thyroid regulate?

metabolism and energy balance

23

What are the two thyroid hormones and what do they do?

-thyroxine (regulates body energy use)
-calcitonin (one hormone that regulates calcium and phosphate in blood)

24

What do PTH (parathyroid hormones) increase?

calcium, phosphate, and magnesium absorption in intestines

25

PTH causes bones to release____and____

calcium
phosphate

26

PTH causes removal of____and____from____by____.

-calcium
-magnesium
-urine
-kidneys

27

What increases the making of Vitamin D in body?

PTH

28

What does our body use feedback mechanism to maintain?

homeostasis within our body

29

What are the parts of the adrenal gland (or kidney???) confused.... also, what do they do?

cortex (produces more than 2 dozen steroid hromones called corticosteriods)
medulla (fight or flight, epinphrine and nonepinephrine)

30

What are the two ways to regulate glucose?

1) eating regularly
2) hormone adjustments

31

What did the pancrease do in digestion?

secreted enzymes

32

Does the pancrease release hormones?

yes

33

What do pancreatic hormones regulate?

blood sugar level before and after meales

34

What are islets?

clusters of cells in pancreas

35

Islets:
Alpha?

secrete glucagon (increase in sugar)

36

Islets:
Beta?

secrete insulin (decrease sugar)

37

What happens between meals?
Glucose level?
Pancrease secretes what?
Liver changes what?
Glucose sent where?

blood glucose low -->pancrease secretes glucagon--> liver changes glycogen to glucose--> glucose sent to target tissues

38

What happens after a meal?
Glucose level?
Pancrease secretes what?
Glucose goves where?

blood glucose high-->pancrease secretes insulin-->glucose goes to the liver (glycogen) and goes to target tissues

39

Diabetes: are sugar levels in blood high or low?

high

40

What do diabetics not produce enough of to control blood sugar?

insulin

41

What do they have to have injections of (diabetes)?

insulin

42

What de the reproductive glands produce? What do they secrete? Male and female examples.

-gametes
-sex hormones
-female: ovaries, estrogen
-male: testes, testosterone