Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (30)
1

Hypothalamus

Located in the brain – above brain stem
Links the Central Nervous system to the Endocrine system

2

Anterior Pituitary gland produces

Growth hormone

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Adreno-corticotrophic hormone

Follicle stimulating hormone

Lutenising hormone

Prolactin

3

Posterior Pituitary gland produces

Antidiuretic hormone

Oxytocin

4

Pituitary Diseases

Hyperpituitarism-related effects
Adenomas
Hypopituitarism-related effectsInjury, surgery, radiation, inflammation
Local mass effect compressing the optic chiasm

5

Hyperpituitarism

Most common cause is an adenoma in anterior lobe.

Other causes:Cancer Hyperplasia

6

Pituitary Adenoma

Functional- prolactinoma
Non Functional
Macroadenomas ( > 1 cm in diameter )
Microadenomas (

7

Pituitary Adenoma over production of ACTH

Cushing’s disease

8

Pituitary Adenoma over production of growth hormone

Gigantism (children)
Acromegaly (adults)

9

Pituitary Adenoma over production of prolactin

Galactorrhea/ amenorrhea sexual dysfunctioninfertility

10

Pituitary Adenoma over production of TSH

Hyperthyroidism

11

Pituitary Adenoma over production of FSH, LH

Hypogonadism, mass effects/hypopituitarism

12

Hypopituitarism

Occurs with loss of 75% or more of the anterior pituitary parenchyma.
Causes:
Ischemic necrosis of the pituitary: Sheehan’s syndrome

Non functioning adenomas

Surgery or irradiation

Inflammatory lesions

13

Hyperthyroidism causes

Grave’s disease (Autoimmune)
Over treatment by thyroxine
Infective – De Quervain’s thyroiditis
Toxic multinodular goitre
Toxic adenoma

14

Hyperthyroidism management/ treatment

Testing: Clinical + thyroid function tests

Treat the cause

Carbimazole/propylthiouracil

Radioiodine

Thyroidectomy

15

Hypothyroidism

Iodine deficiency
Autoimmune – Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Iatrogenic: Surgery, radioiodine
Pituitary defects
Congenital

16

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

Autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland.

Women > men

45 – 60 years old

17

Thyroid Cancer

Relatively uncommon

Most common type is Papillary carcinoma.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a non-functional tumour.

18

Hypoparathyroidism causes

Removal by surgery (Thyroidectomy)
Congenital
Hereditary (autoimmune)

19

Hypoparathyroidism symptoms

Due to low calcium;- Irritability- Tetany- Seizures

20

Hyperparathyroidism causes

PRIMARY
Adenoma
SECONDARY
chronic renal failure
TERTIARY
After renal transplant

21

Hyperparathyroidism symptoms

Due to hypercalcemia:
Constipation
Depression
Seizures
Muscle wasting
Polyuria
Bone fractures
Kidney stones

22

Hyperaldosteronism

Primary ( Conn’s Disease in > 50 %)
Secondary (due to high renin)

23

Conn's Disease Symptoms

Oedema
Hypertension
High Sodium
Low Potassium

24

Glucocorticoids: Cortisol

Essential to life
Regulates blood sugar
Inhibits inflammation
Stress response
Release is by circadian rhythm (normal)
Stress
Excess release ------ Cushing’s Syndrome

25

Cushing's Syndrome Causes

ACTH releasing tumour (pituitary/lung)
Steroids

26

Addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency)

Multiple causes:
Autoimmune
Infection
Neoplasms

27

Addison’s disease: Symptoms and signs

GI Symptoms (Anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea)
Weight loss
Hyperpigmentation
Low Sodium, High Potassium

28

Gonadocorticoids (sex hormones)

Testosterone
Oestrogen
Both are also secreted from the gonads

29

Phaeochromocytoma: Presentation

Hypertension
Sweating
Palpitations
Nervousness
Increased metabolic ratio
Rapid heart rate

30

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN)

Group of inherited diseases resulting in proliferative lesions of multiple endocrine organs
Different types