Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

Paramedic 2 > Endocrinology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (47):
1

The endocrine system is closely linked to what other system?

nervous system.

2

How does the endocrine system control the body?

Chemical messengers called hormones

3

What is the fundamental structure of the endocrine system?

Endocrine glands

4

What do endocrine glands produce?

Hormones

5

Where do endocrine glands secrete hormones into?

Directly into the capillaries to circulate in the blood

6

Differentiate endocrine and exocrine glands

Endocrine glands have widespread effects where as exocrine glands are localized

7

What are the eight major endocrine glands

Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
Thyroid Gland
Parathyroid gland
Thymus
Pancreas
Adrenal glands
Gonads

8

What body tissues have endocrine functions?

Kidneys
Heart
Placenta
Parts of digestive tract

9

Where is the hypothalamus located?

Located deep within the cerebrum of the brain

10

What hormones are produced from the hypothalamus

Growth hormone releasing hormone
Growth hormone inhibiting hormone
Corticotropin releasing hormone
Thyrotropin releasing hormone
Gonadtropin hormone
Prolactin releasing hormone
Prolactin inhibiting hormone

11

How big is the pituitary gland?

The size of a pea; divided into posterior and anterior pituitary lobes

12

The posterior pituitary gland responds to nerve impulses coming from where?

The Hypothalamus

13

The anterior pituitary gland responds to what kind of hormone?

Hypothalamic hormones

14

What two hormones does the posterior pituitary gland provide?

Antidiuretic Hormone: causes retention of body water
Oxytocin: causes uterine contraction and lactation

15

What occurs during dehydration or hemorrhaging with pituitary gland?

Increased ADH secretion to prevent dehydration

16

Diabetes insipidus is a disorder marked by what?

Large volumes of urine; caused by inadequate ADH secretion relative to blood volume.

17

What are the six anterior pituitary hormones

Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone (Estrogen, testosterone,)
Luteneinizing hormone
Prolactin
Growth Hormone

18

Where is the thyroid gland located?

Two lobes located in the neck anterior and just below the cartilage of the larynx

19

What three hormones does the thyroid produce?

Thyroxine
Triiodothyronine
Calcitonin

20

Describe the thyroid gland

Composed of tiny hollow sacs called follicles, filled with thick fluid called colloid

21

How does calcitonin lower blood calcium levels?

Increasing uptake of calcium by bones and inhibiting the breakdown of bone tissue

22

where are parathyroid glands located

Posterior lateral surface of the thyroid.

23

What does the parathyroid gland secrete

Parathyroid hormone (Increases blood calcium levels)

24

Parathyroid Hormone is the antagonist of what hormone

Calcitonin

25

Where is the thymus gland located

In the mediastinum just behind the sternum

26

In childhood what does the thymus gland produce?

Thymosin, promotes maturation of T lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity

27

Where is the pancreas located?

The upper retroperitoneum behind the stomach

28

The pancreas is composed of what two tissues

Endocrine and exocrine tissue

29

What is the endocrine tissue found in the pancreas known as?

Islets of langhorn

30

What does the alpha cells in the pancreas produce?

Glucagon

31

Define glycogenolysis

Breakdown of glycogen by glucagon

32

Define gluconeogenesis

Glucose from nonsugar sources

33

What do beta cells in the pancreas create?

Insulin

34

Insulin is the antagonist of what hormone?

glucagon

35

Where are adrenal glands located?

Superior surface of the kidneys

36

How do you check corneal reflex and what does it check for?

Take sterile gauze and touch a patients eyeball. All patients should have some sort of repsonse.

37

Where is the pineal gland located?

Roof of the thalamus in the brain

38

What hormone does the pineal gland release?

Melatonin in response to changes in light

39

Melatonin may affect what?

A persons mood

40

What kind of respirations are associated with DKA?

Kussmals breath, deep rapid breathing

41

Define myxedema

Long-term exposure to inadequate levels of thyroid hormones.

42

What causes cushings syndrome?

Excessive adrenocortical activity

43

What causes addisons diesease?

Deficient adrenocortical activity

44

What are some signs and symptoms of cushings syndrome?

Weight gain, trunk of body, face, neck and moon-faced appearance devleops
Accumulation fat on upper back referred to as "buffalo hump"
Skin changes common and early clue
Mood swings and impaired memory or concentration

45

What is the cause of Addison's disease?

Adrenal glands fail to produce adequate amount of steroid hormones ( cortisol and aldosterone)

46

Cushings and Addisons syndrome are acute and chronic conditions, which is which?

Chronic Cushings
Acute Addisons

47

What are some signs and symptoms of addisons diesease?

Progressive weakness, fatigue, decreased appetite, weight loss; hyperpigmentation of skin and mucous membranes