Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (47):
The endocrine system is closely linked to what other system?
How does the endocrine system control the body?
Chemical messengers called hormones
What is the fundamental structure of the endocrine system?
What do endocrine glands produce?
Where do endocrine glands secrete hormones into?
Directly into the capillaries to circulate in the blood
Differentiate endocrine and exocrine glands
Endocrine glands have widespread effects where as exocrine glands are localized
What are the eight major endocrine glands
What body tissues have endocrine functions?
Parts of digestive tract
Where is the hypothalamus located?
Located deep within the cerebrum of the brain
What hormones are produced from the hypothalamus
Growth hormone releasing hormone
Growth hormone inhibiting hormone
Corticotropin releasing hormone
Thyrotropin releasing hormone
Prolactin releasing hormone
Prolactin inhibiting hormone
How big is the pituitary gland?
The size of a pea; divided into posterior and anterior pituitary lobes
The posterior pituitary gland responds to nerve impulses coming from where?
The anterior pituitary gland responds to what kind of hormone?
What two hormones does the posterior pituitary gland provide?
Antidiuretic Hormone: causes retention of body water
Oxytocin: causes uterine contraction and lactation
What occurs during dehydration or hemorrhaging with pituitary gland?
Increased ADH secretion to prevent dehydration
Diabetes insipidus is a disorder marked by what?
Large volumes of urine; caused by inadequate ADH secretion relative to blood volume.
What are the six anterior pituitary hormones
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone (Estrogen, testosterone,)
Where is the thyroid gland located?
Two lobes located in the neck anterior and just below the cartilage of the larynx
What three hormones does the thyroid produce?
Describe the thyroid gland
Composed of tiny hollow sacs called follicles, filled with thick fluid called colloid
How does calcitonin lower blood calcium levels?
Increasing uptake of calcium by bones and inhibiting the breakdown of bone tissue
where are parathyroid glands located
Posterior lateral surface of the thyroid.
What does the parathyroid gland secrete
Parathyroid hormone (Increases blood calcium levels)
Parathyroid Hormone is the antagonist of what hormone
Where is the thymus gland located
In the mediastinum just behind the sternum
In childhood what does the thymus gland produce?
Thymosin, promotes maturation of T lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity
Where is the pancreas located?
The upper retroperitoneum behind the stomach
The pancreas is composed of what two tissues
Endocrine and exocrine tissue
What is the endocrine tissue found in the pancreas known as?
Islets of langhorn
What does the alpha cells in the pancreas produce?
Breakdown of glycogen by glucagon
Glucose from nonsugar sources
What do beta cells in the pancreas create?
Insulin is the antagonist of what hormone?
Where are adrenal glands located?
Superior surface of the kidneys
How do you check corneal reflex and what does it check for?
Take sterile gauze and touch a patients eyeball. All patients should have some sort of repsonse.
Where is the pineal gland located?
Roof of the thalamus in the brain
What hormone does the pineal gland release?
Melatonin in response to changes in light
Melatonin may affect what?
A persons mood
What kind of respirations are associated with DKA?
Kussmals breath, deep rapid breathing
Long-term exposure to inadequate levels of thyroid hormones.
What causes cushings syndrome?
Excessive adrenocortical activity
What causes addisons diesease?
Deficient adrenocortical activity
What are some signs and symptoms of cushings syndrome?
Weight gain, trunk of body, face, neck and moon-faced appearance devleops
Accumulation fat on upper back referred to as "buffalo hump"
Skin changes common and early clue
Mood swings and impaired memory or concentration
What is the cause of Addison's disease?
Adrenal glands fail to produce adequate amount of steroid hormones ( cortisol and aldosterone)
Cushings and Addisons syndrome are acute and chronic conditions, which is which?