Hematology (Vol. 4 Chp. 9) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematology (Vol. 4 Chp. 9) Deck (32):
1

Sickle Cell anemia is more common in what ethnic group and why?

African Americans, thought to be in response to malaria

2

What may hematologic disorders predispose patients to?

intolerance to exercise

hypoxia

acidosis

blood loss

3

What does the hematopoietic system consist of?

Blood (both cells and plasma)

Bone Marrow

Liver

Spleen

Kidneys

4

What is the process and the cell that most blood cells come from?

Blood cells are formed from pluripotent stem cells through a process called hematopoiesis

5

Define Hematology

The study of blood and blood forming organs

6

What two organs create erythropoietin and what purpose does erythropoietin serve?

Kidney and to the lesser extent the liver

Helps promote maturation of red blood cells

7

What two purposes does the liver serve in the hematopoietic system?

Removes toxins from blood

Produces clotting factors and proteins found in the plasma

8

What is the blood volume percentage compared to total body weight?

6%

Approximately 80 - 85 ml blood per kg

9

Approximately how much blood can the body handle losing without complications?

0.5 L

25 - 30% blood volume

10

What is plasma and what is it made up of?

Plasma: thick pale-yellow fluid which is 90-92% water; 6-7% proteins and carbohydrates, chemical messengers electrolytes and fats make up the last 2-3%

Plasma transports the cellular components of blood and dissolved nutrients throughout the body

Also transports waste

Clots blood

Dismantles clots

Buffers the bloods acid-base balance

11

Electrolytes found in plasma are essential to what functions?

nerve conduction

muscle contraction

water balance

12

What is the primary role of blood in the body?

Transport blood from the lungs to the tissues of the rest of the body.

13

At rest, the body consumes about ____ ml oxygen per kilogram of body weight every ______

4; minute

14

What is the normal range for SPO2?

95 - 100%

15

As pH levels lower, what occurs with hemoglobin?

hemoglobin will more readily release oxygen

16

What is the Bohr effect?

waste CO2 from tissues diffuses into blood, causing hemoglobin to give up more oxygen to tissues

17

Except hemoglobin, what is the most common chemical in the blood?

2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG)

2,3-BPG levels in crease in hypoxia, and makes oxygen combination with hemoglobin more difficult

18

Red blood cell production is called?

Erythropoiesis

19

What hormone causes the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells?

Erythropoietin

20

Define hemolysis and sequestration

Hemolysis is the destruction of red blood cells

Sequestration is the trapping of red blood cells by an organ such as the spleen

21

Red Blood Cells are measured and quantified in what two ways?

Red Blood Cell Count

Hematocrit

22

What is hematocrit?

The packed volume of red blood cells er unit of blood

23

How is hematocrit measurement obtained?

Placing blood into a centrifuge and spinning at high speed thus separating the cellular components from the plasma

Red blood cells are heavier because they of iron-containing pigment hemoglobin and thus are forced to the bottom of the tube

24

White blood cells are also called what

Leukocytes

25

What are marginated leukocytes?

White blood cells that do not move freely through the blood stream

They are attached to a blood vessels walls

26

Define chemotaxis

the movement of white blood cells in response to chemical signals

27

What is the process called when a white blood cells engulfs and destroys an invader?

Phagocytosis

28

Healthy People have _________ - __________ white blood cells that may increase to ________ when fighting infection

5,000 to 9,000

16,000

29

Define hemostasis and the three mechanisms of it

The combined three mechanisms that work to control blood loss

Vascular Spasms

Platelet Plugs

Stable fibrin blood clots (coagulation)

30

What blood types are the universal donors and universal recipient?

AB is the universal recipient

O is the universal donor

31

Polycythemia is a defined as what?

Excessive amounts of red blood cells

32

Anemia is defined as what?

Lack of red blood cell or hemoglobin