Flashcards in Hematology (Vol. 4 Chp. 9) Deck (32):
Sickle Cell anemia is more common in what ethnic group and why?
African Americans, thought to be in response to malaria
What may hematologic disorders predispose patients to?
intolerance to exercise
What does the hematopoietic system consist of?
Blood (both cells and plasma)
What is the process and the cell that most blood cells come from?
Blood cells are formed from pluripotent stem cells through a process called hematopoiesis
The study of blood and blood forming organs
What two organs create erythropoietin and what purpose does erythropoietin serve?
Kidney and to the lesser extent the liver
Helps promote maturation of red blood cells
What two purposes does the liver serve in the hematopoietic system?
Removes toxins from blood
Produces clotting factors and proteins found in the plasma
What is the blood volume percentage compared to total body weight?
Approximately 80 - 85 ml blood per kg
Approximately how much blood can the body handle losing without complications?
25 - 30% blood volume
What is plasma and what is it made up of?
Plasma: thick pale-yellow fluid which is 90-92% water; 6-7% proteins and carbohydrates, chemical messengers electrolytes and fats make up the last 2-3%
Plasma transports the cellular components of blood and dissolved nutrients throughout the body
Also transports waste
Buffers the bloods acid-base balance
Electrolytes found in plasma are essential to what functions?
What is the primary role of blood in the body?
Transport blood from the lungs to the tissues of the rest of the body.
At rest, the body consumes about ____ ml oxygen per kilogram of body weight every ______
What is the normal range for SPO2?
95 - 100%
As pH levels lower, what occurs with hemoglobin?
hemoglobin will more readily release oxygen
What is the Bohr effect?
waste CO2 from tissues diffuses into blood, causing hemoglobin to give up more oxygen to tissues
Except hemoglobin, what is the most common chemical in the blood?
2,3-BPG levels in crease in hypoxia, and makes oxygen combination with hemoglobin more difficult
Red blood cell production is called?
What hormone causes the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells?
Define hemolysis and sequestration
Hemolysis is the destruction of red blood cells
Sequestration is the trapping of red blood cells by an organ such as the spleen
Red Blood Cells are measured and quantified in what two ways?
Red Blood Cell Count
What is hematocrit?
The packed volume of red blood cells er unit of blood
How is hematocrit measurement obtained?
Placing blood into a centrifuge and spinning at high speed thus separating the cellular components from the plasma
Red blood cells are heavier because they of iron-containing pigment hemoglobin and thus are forced to the bottom of the tube
White blood cells are also called what
What are marginated leukocytes?
White blood cells that do not move freely through the blood stream
They are attached to a blood vessels walls
the movement of white blood cells in response to chemical signals
What is the process called when a white blood cells engulfs and destroys an invader?
Healthy People have _________ - __________ white blood cells that may increase to ________ when fighting infection
5,000 to 9,000
Define hemostasis and the three mechanisms of it
The combined three mechanisms that work to control blood loss
Stable fibrin blood clots (coagulation)
What blood types are the universal donors and universal recipient?
AB is the universal recipient
O is the universal donor
Polycythemia is a defined as what?
Excessive amounts of red blood cells