Flashcards in Gastroenterology Deck (24):
What are common risk factors known to physicians that are related to GI emergencies?
excessive alcohol consumption
ingestion of caustic substances
and poor bowel habits
What are the three main classifications of abdominal pain?
What is visceral pain?
Pain that originates in the walls of hollow organs such as the gallbladder or appendix
What three mechanisms can produce pain visceral pain?
Why is visceral pain not localized to any one area?
The nerves that transmit the pain go into multiple levels of the spinal column
Pain is often described as vague or poorly localized, dull, or crampy
What kind of abdominal pain is described poorly and vaguely?
How does the body normally respond to visceral pain?
Sympathetic stimulation that causes nausea and vomiting, diaphoresis and tachycardia
Many hollow organs first cause ________ pain when they become distended and then cause _________ pain when they rupture or tear.
What is peritonitis?
inflammation of the peritoneum
Define somatic pain
Sharp type pain that travels along well defined neural routes.
Because of the define routes pain is more easily localized compared to visceral
What two types of irritation can cause somatic pain?
Bacterial irritation (can originate from a perforated or ruptured appendix/gallbladder)
Chemical Irritation (leakage of acidic juices from the ulcer or pancreas)
Whether the cause of somatic pain is bacterial or chemical, peritonitis can lead to what?
sepsis and death
Define referred pain
Pain that originates in a region other than where it is felt
Which type of abdominal pain is not a true pain producing mechanism?
Why does referred pain occur?
Neural pathways from one organ pass through or over regions where the organ was formed during embryonic development
IE. The neural pathways in the diaphragm enter the spinal column at the fourth cervical vertebra.Thus causing patients that have diaphragm injury often feel pain in their necks or shoulders
What type of abdominal pain is usually associated with sudden onsets?
Perforation of abdominal organs or capsules
What type of pain is generally associated with gradual onsets?
Blockages of hollow organs
What type of abdominal pain may be indicated if the patient draws his legs up to his chest or lies on his side?
If walking relieves abdominal pain, what kind of abdominal pain may it be?
GI or urinary, may be an obstruction of the gallbladder or a stone caught in the renal pelvis or ureter
Sharp flank pain could be an indication of what?
Referred pain in the shoulder or neck is commonly associated with irritation where?
In the diaphragm, possibly caused by cholecystitis
Gastrointestinal emergencies account for mow many and what percentage of hospitalizations every year?
Abdominal pain lasting over ______ hours is considered a surgical emergency