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Flashcards in Gastroenterology Deck (24):
1

What are common risk factors known to physicians that are related to GI emergencies?

excessive alcohol consumption

excessive smoking

increased stress

ingestion of caustic substances

and poor bowel habits

2

What are the three main classifications of abdominal pain?

Visceral pain

Somatic

Referred

3

What is visceral pain?

Pain that originates in the walls of hollow organs such as the gallbladder or appendix

4

What three mechanisms can produce pain visceral pain?

inflammation

distention

ischemia

5

Why is visceral pain not localized to any one area?

The nerves that transmit the pain go into multiple levels of the spinal column

Pain is often described as vague or poorly localized, dull, or crampy

6

What kind of abdominal pain is described poorly and vaguely?

Visceral Pain

7

How does the body normally respond to visceral pain?

Sympathetic stimulation that causes nausea and vomiting, diaphoresis and tachycardia

8

Many hollow organs first cause ________ pain when they become distended and then cause _________ pain when they rupture or tear.

Visceral

Somatic

9

What is peritonitis?

inflammation of the peritoneum

10

Define somatic pain

Sharp type pain that travels along well defined neural routes.

Because of the define routes pain is more easily localized compared to visceral

11

What two types of irritation can cause somatic pain?

Bacterial irritation (can originate from a perforated or ruptured appendix/gallbladder)

Chemical Irritation (leakage of acidic juices from the ulcer or pancreas)

12

Whether the cause of somatic pain is bacterial or chemical, peritonitis can lead to what?

sepsis and death

13

Define referred pain

Pain that originates in a region other than where it is felt

14

Which type of abdominal pain is not a true pain producing mechanism?

Referred pain

15

Why does referred pain occur?

Neural pathways from one organ pass through or over regions where the organ was formed during embryonic development

IE. The neural pathways in the diaphragm enter the spinal column at the fourth cervical vertebra.Thus causing patients that have diaphragm injury often feel pain in their necks or shoulders

16

What type of abdominal pain is usually associated with sudden onsets?

Perforation of abdominal organs or capsules

17

What type of pain is generally associated with gradual onsets?

Blockages of hollow organs

18

What type of abdominal pain may be indicated if the patient draws his legs up to his chest or lies on his side?

Peritoneal inflammation

19

If walking relieves abdominal pain, what kind of abdominal pain may it be?

GI or urinary, may be an obstruction of the gallbladder or a stone caught in the renal pelvis or ureter

20

Sharp flank pain could be an indication of what?

Kidney stones

21

Referred pain in the shoulder or neck is commonly associated with irritation where?

In the diaphragm, possibly caused by cholecystitis

22

Gastrointestinal emergencies account for mow many and what percentage of hospitalizations every year?

500,000

5%

23

Abdominal pain lasting over ______ hours is considered a surgical emergency

6

24

What type of questions would you ask for other signs and symptoms associated with abdominal pain?

If they have vomited and what the vomitus appeared like

Changes in bowel habits (diarrhea, constipation)

Changes to fecal matter

Associated appetite and weight loss/gain