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Flashcards in Geriatric's Deck (30):
0

Between 1960 and 1990 the geriatric population has rose by how much?

Doubled

1

What are four reasons that the geriatric population has been increasing?

Mean survival rate of older persons is increasing

Birth rate is declining

Absence of major wars or catastrophes

Healthcare and standards of living has been improved since WW2

2

Define Gerontology

Study of aging on the human body

3

Define geriatrics

The study and treatment of diseases related to elderly

4

What sort of societal issues do geriatric patients face?

Sense of social isolation

Reduced usefulness

Retirement related issues; reduced income, relocation, loss of family, friends, spouse and/or partner.

5

What two types of living environments do the elderly live in?

Independent and dependent living environments

6

__% of persons over 75 report feelings of loneliness.

60%

7

90% of elderly persons who live alone choose to maintain their independence, why?

Fear of being helpless

Wish not to burden friends and family

They see their illnesses as a part of aging and refuse to ask for help or complain

8

What risks are associated with elderly patients that have limited mobility and limited finances?

Accidental hypothermia

Carbon monoxide poisoning

Fires

Taking half-doses of medications to save money

9

What is an advanced directive?

A legal document prepared while a patient is competent, alive and able to make informed decisions regarding healthcare. Provides guidelines on treatment if a person is no longer competent to make decisions

10

What costs do Medicare part A, part B and part D cover?

Part A covers in-hospital treatment

Part B covers physician and outpatient treatment

Part D covers prescription drugs

11

Although medicaid was designed to assist low-income families and persons with disabilities, the high cost of healthcare has brought many elderly patients into the medicaid program. Medicaid contributes __% of financing for nursing facilities.

45%

12

The best intervention for elderly patients is?

Prevention

13

Medical disorders in the elderly often present as what?

Functional impairment (decreased ability to meet daily needs on an independent basis), should be treated as early signs of possibly undetected medical disorder.

14

Signs and symptoms for elderly patients may not necessarily point to the underlying cause, why is that?

Elderly patients often suffer from a wide range of disorders. I.E.

Confusion may indicate brain disease in a younger patient however, an elderly patient may be suffering from drug toxicity, malnutrition, and/or accidental hypothermia

15

Define comorbidity

Having more than one disease at a time.

16

Complaints of the elderly may not necessarily be related to one disorder, what are common complaints of the elderly?

Fatigue and weakness

Dizziness/vertigo/syncope

Falls

Headaches

Insomnia

Dysphagia

Loss of appetite

Inability to void

Constipation and diarrhea

17

Define polypharmacy

Multiple drug therapy in which there is concurrent use of two or more drugs

18

Because of pharmacokinetic changes in the body at older ages such as loss of body fluid and atrophy of organs what happens to concentrations of drugs in the body?

Concentrate more readily into the plasma and tissues

As a result of this drug dosages must be adjusted to prevent toxicity

19

When taking a medical history of an elderly patient regarding their medications what is a important question to ask?

If the patient is compliant with taking the medications as prescribed.

20

What are the two most effective preventative measures or ensuring mobility in the elderly?

Regular exercise

Good diet

21

What is the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly?

Fall-related injuries

22

Define incontinence

Inability to retain urine or fecal matter due to loss of sphincter control or cerebral or spinal lesions

23

Effective continence require several physical factors, these include

Anatomically correct GI/GU tract

Competent sphincter mechanism

Adequate cognition and mobility

24

In elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease or impaired baroreceptors, efforts to force a bowel movement may lead to what?

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

Syncope

25

In assessing an elderly patient for constipation what drugs may cause constipation?

Opioids

Anticholinergics (I.E. antidepressants, antihistamines, muscle relaxants, antiparkinsonian, drugs)

Cation containing agents (I.E. antacids, calcium supplements, iron supplements)

Neurally active agents (I.E. opiates, anticonvulsants)

Diuretics

26

What are three physical changes that may develop in the cardiovascular system on an elderly patient?

Hypertrophy of the left ventricle wall

Fibrosis develops in the heart and peripheral vascular system

Aorta lengthens and stiffens

27

With patients that have cardiac compromise or complaints what can be an effective way to manage these complaints?

Ask patient to stop all physical activity

DO NOT walk a patient around and/or to the ambulance.

28

Unlike cells in other systems what can the nervous system cells NOT DO?

Reproduce

29

Define pneumonia

Infection of the lung caused by bacterium or virus