Flashcards in Geriatric's Deck (30):
Between 1960 and 1990 the geriatric population has rose by how much?
What are four reasons that the geriatric population has been increasing?
Mean survival rate of older persons is increasing
Birth rate is declining
Absence of major wars or catastrophes
Healthcare and standards of living has been improved since WW2
Study of aging on the human body
The study and treatment of diseases related to elderly
What sort of societal issues do geriatric patients face?
Sense of social isolation
Retirement related issues; reduced income, relocation, loss of family, friends, spouse and/or partner.
What two types of living environments do the elderly live in?
Independent and dependent living environments
__% of persons over 75 report feelings of loneliness.
90% of elderly persons who live alone choose to maintain their independence, why?
Fear of being helpless
Wish not to burden friends and family
They see their illnesses as a part of aging and refuse to ask for help or complain
What risks are associated with elderly patients that have limited mobility and limited finances?
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Taking half-doses of medications to save money
What is an advanced directive?
A legal document prepared while a patient is competent, alive and able to make informed decisions regarding healthcare. Provides guidelines on treatment if a person is no longer competent to make decisions
What costs do Medicare part A, part B and part D cover?
Part A covers in-hospital treatment
Part B covers physician and outpatient treatment
Part D covers prescription drugs
Although medicaid was designed to assist low-income families and persons with disabilities, the high cost of healthcare has brought many elderly patients into the medicaid program. Medicaid contributes __% of financing for nursing facilities.
The best intervention for elderly patients is?
Medical disorders in the elderly often present as what?
Functional impairment (decreased ability to meet daily needs on an independent basis), should be treated as early signs of possibly undetected medical disorder.
Signs and symptoms for elderly patients may not necessarily point to the underlying cause, why is that?
Elderly patients often suffer from a wide range of disorders. I.E.
Confusion may indicate brain disease in a younger patient however, an elderly patient may be suffering from drug toxicity, malnutrition, and/or accidental hypothermia
Having more than one disease at a time.
Complaints of the elderly may not necessarily be related to one disorder, what are common complaints of the elderly?
Fatigue and weakness
Loss of appetite
Inability to void
Constipation and diarrhea
Multiple drug therapy in which there is concurrent use of two or more drugs
Because of pharmacokinetic changes in the body at older ages such as loss of body fluid and atrophy of organs what happens to concentrations of drugs in the body?
Concentrate more readily into the plasma and tissues
As a result of this drug dosages must be adjusted to prevent toxicity
When taking a medical history of an elderly patient regarding their medications what is a important question to ask?
If the patient is compliant with taking the medications as prescribed.
What are the two most effective preventative measures or ensuring mobility in the elderly?
What is the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly?
Inability to retain urine or fecal matter due to loss of sphincter control or cerebral or spinal lesions
Effective continence require several physical factors, these include
Anatomically correct GI/GU tract
Competent sphincter mechanism
Adequate cognition and mobility
In elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease or impaired baroreceptors, efforts to force a bowel movement may lead to what?
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
In assessing an elderly patient for constipation what drugs may cause constipation?
Anticholinergics (I.E. antidepressants, antihistamines, muscle relaxants, antiparkinsonian, drugs)
Cation containing agents (I.E. antacids, calcium supplements, iron supplements)
Neurally active agents (I.E. opiates, anticonvulsants)
What are three physical changes that may develop in the cardiovascular system on an elderly patient?
Hypertrophy of the left ventricle wall
Fibrosis develops in the heart and peripheral vascular system
Aorta lengthens and stiffens
With patients that have cardiac compromise or complaints what can be an effective way to manage these complaints?
Ask patient to stop all physical activity
DO NOT walk a patient around and/or to the ambulance.
Unlike cells in other systems what can the nervous system cells NOT DO?