Infection Dieseases and Sepsis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infection Dieseases and Sepsis Deck (30):
0

What is an infectious disease?

illness caused by infestation of the body by biological organisms.

1

What is an epidemiologist?

Person that studies how diseases affect a population.

2

Most infectious diseases are usually not what?

Life threatening

3

Define index case

The first individual to bring an infectious disease to a population.

4

Define opportunistic pathogens

nonharmful bacteria that cause disease only under unusual circumstances.

5

Define normal flora

organisms that live inside our bodies without ordinarily causing disease.

6

Define pathogen

a disease-producing agent or invading substance

7

Define bacteria

microscopic single-celled organisms that range in length from 1 to 20 micrometers.

8

Bacteria can reproduce independently but require a host for what?

supply of food and environment

9

What is the most common method of differentiating bacteria?

Gram staining

10

What does a gram stained purple bacteria indicate?

Gram Positive

11

What does a gram stained red bacteria indicate?

Gram Negative

12

Bacteria that stain similarly have similar what and may respond similarly to what?

Cell walls and Treatments

13

How may bacteria harm the body?

Heavy colonization can cause direct damage to the tissue it feeds on

Bacteria can indirectly harm the body through the release of toxins

14

What are the two different types of toxins?

Exotoxins and endotoxins

15

Most bacterial infections respond to what?

Antibiotics; bactericidal (kill bacteria) or bacteriostatic (inhibit the bacterial growth or reproduction)

16

Define virus

Much smaller than bacteria; only seen in electron microscope

Cannot reproduce and carry on metabolism by themselves

Obligate intracellular parasites: grow and reporduce only within host cell

Resist antibiotic treatment

17

What is the problem with attempting to kill a virus?

A virus will integrate itself within a host cell thus making any attempt at killing the virus killing the host cell as well.

18

Define prions

Disease producing agents referred to as slow viruses

Causes a lot of dementia and insomnia

19

Define fungi

plantlike microorganisms, most are non pathogenic

Yeasts, mold, mushrooms are types of fungi

Become pathogenic in patients with compromised immune function

20

What are parasites?

Common causes of diseases where sanitiation poor

Roundworms: Live in the intestinal mucosa. May reach 30 - 50 cm in length

Symptoms: Abd Cramping, Fever , Cough

21

What is a pinworm

Tiny worms that livei n the distal colon.

Common cause of anal pruitus (itching) and infection

22

Define hookworms




Found in warm moist climates

LArvae passed in stool of infected animals. contracted when barefoot walks in contaminated area

Epigastric pain and anemia

23

Define trichinosis

Contracted by eating raw and inadequately cooked pork products

Gastrointestinal disturbacnes, edema and fever

If worms invade the heart\ lungs an\or brain death may result

24

Oxygen does not normall attempt to attach to what?

Hemoglobin

25

What some diseases that are transmitted through air on droplets expelled during productive cough or sneeze?

Tuberculosis, meningitis, mumps, measeles, rubella, chickenpox (varicella)

26

What is the latent period of the infectious process

Once infected with the infectious agent, host cannot transmit agent to someone and does not present with sign and symptoms

27

What is the communicable period of the ifectious process

Host may exhibit signs of clinical disease; can transmit infectious agent to another host

28

What is the incubation period

Time between exposure and presentation

29

Virus and bacteria have what that stimulate the body to produce antibodies?

Surface proteins called antigens