Flashcards in Infection Dieseases and Sepsis Deck (30):
What is an infectious disease?
illness caused by infestation of the body by biological organisms.
What is an epidemiologist?
Person that studies how diseases affect a population.
Most infectious diseases are usually not what?
Define index case
The first individual to bring an infectious disease to a population.
Define opportunistic pathogens
nonharmful bacteria that cause disease only under unusual circumstances.
Define normal flora
organisms that live inside our bodies without ordinarily causing disease.
a disease-producing agent or invading substance
microscopic single-celled organisms that range in length from 1 to 20 micrometers.
Bacteria can reproduce independently but require a host for what?
supply of food and environment
What is the most common method of differentiating bacteria?
What does a gram stained purple bacteria indicate?
What does a gram stained red bacteria indicate?
Bacteria that stain similarly have similar what and may respond similarly to what?
Cell walls and Treatments
How may bacteria harm the body?
Heavy colonization can cause direct damage to the tissue it feeds on
Bacteria can indirectly harm the body through the release of toxins
What are the two different types of toxins?
Exotoxins and endotoxins
Most bacterial infections respond to what?
Antibiotics; bactericidal (kill bacteria) or bacteriostatic (inhibit the bacterial growth or reproduction)
Much smaller than bacteria; only seen in electron microscope
Cannot reproduce and carry on metabolism by themselves
Obligate intracellular parasites: grow and reporduce only within host cell
Resist antibiotic treatment
What is the problem with attempting to kill a virus?
A virus will integrate itself within a host cell thus making any attempt at killing the virus killing the host cell as well.
Disease producing agents referred to as slow viruses
Causes a lot of dementia and insomnia
plantlike microorganisms, most are non pathogenic
Yeasts, mold, mushrooms are types of fungi
Become pathogenic in patients with compromised immune function
What are parasites?
Common causes of diseases where sanitiation poor
Roundworms: Live in the intestinal mucosa. May reach 30 - 50 cm in length
Symptoms: Abd Cramping, Fever , Cough
What is a pinworm
Tiny worms that livei n the distal colon.
Common cause of anal pruitus (itching) and infection
Found in warm moist climates
LArvae passed in stool of infected animals. contracted when barefoot walks in contaminated area
Epigastric pain and anemia
Contracted by eating raw and inadequately cooked pork products
Gastrointestinal disturbacnes, edema and fever
If worms invade the heart\ lungs an\or brain death may result
Oxygen does not normall attempt to attach to what?
What some diseases that are transmitted through air on droplets expelled during productive cough or sneeze?
Tuberculosis, meningitis, mumps, measeles, rubella, chickenpox (varicella)
What is the latent period of the infectious process
Once infected with the infectious agent, host cannot transmit agent to someone and does not present with sign and symptoms
What is the communicable period of the ifectious process
Host may exhibit signs of clinical disease; can transmit infectious agent to another host
What is the incubation period
Time between exposure and presentation