Endrocrine random Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 > Endrocrine random > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endrocrine random Deck (43):
1

Input to adrenal medulla

T5-T11 (celiac/renal plexuses)

2

Common alpha subunit

TSH, LH, FSH, hCG

3

Acidophils

GH, prolactin

4

Basophils

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH

5

Insulin fun facts

Increase Na retention and does not cross the placenta

6

Insulin independent transporters

GLUT1 - RBCs, brain, cornea
GLUT2 (bidirectional) - B islet cells, liver, kidney, small intestine
GLUT3 - brain
GLUT5 (fructose) - spermatocytes, GI tract

7

Insulin-dependent cell response to insulin

Tyrosine phosphorylation:
1) PI-3 kinase pathway: a) GLUT4 upreg b) Glycogen, protein, lipid synthesis
2) RAS/MAP kinase pathway causing cell grown and DNA synthesis

8

Insulin release (stim/inhib)

- Glucose, AA, enteric hormones, glucagon, vagus, Beta-adrenergic, GH (by increasing resistance)
- Somatostatin, insulin

9

Glucagon release (stim/inhib)

- AA, enteric hormones, cortisol, vagus, Beta-adrenergic
- Glucose, f.a., ketone bodies, insulin, somatostatin

10

Beta-endorphin

- CRH causes release
- Endogenous opioid neuropeptide

11

Tesamorelin

GHRH analog for HIV-associated lipodystrophy

12

Somatostatin

decreased GH and TSH

13

TRH

Increased TSH and Prolactin

14

Prolactin stimulates...

dopamine

15

IGF-1

Somatomedin C

16

GH (stim/inhib)

- Exercise, sleep, Ghrelin (GH secretagog receptor)
- Glucose, somatostatin, IGF-1

17

Ghrelin release

Sleep loss and Prader-Willi syndrome

18

Leptin MOA

- Inhibits neuropeptide Y production in arcuate nuc. of hypothalamus (apatite stimulator in lateral thalamus)
- Increases POMC, thus alpha-MSH which is a hunger suppressant in medial thalamus

19

Cortisol on fibroblasts and immune

- Decreased fibroblast activity (striae)
- Decreases PG/LT, Neutrophilia, block histamine release, reduce eosinophils, block IL-2 production (TB/candidiasis reactivation)

20

Chvostek sign

tap facial nerve and fascial muscle contract (=hypocalcemia)

21

Trousseau sign

Prolonged BP cuff causes carpo-pedal spasm (=hypocalcemia)

22

Increased pH

causes hypocalcemia

23

24,25-(OH)2 D3

Inactive form

24

RANK-L

- receptor activator of NF-KB ligand
- increased by PTH (along with macrophage CSF)

25

Hypomagnesemia (causes/effect)

- Diarrhea, aminoglycosides, diuretics, alcohol abuse
- slight=increased PTH, significant=decreased PTH

26

Low phosphorus

Increased 1,25(OH)2D3 production

27

cAMP

FLAT ChAMP
- FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, CRH, hCG, ADH (V2), MSH, PTH, calcitonin, GHRH, glucagon

28

cGMP

ANP, BNP, NO (EDRF)

29

IP3

GOAT HAG
GnRH, Oxytocin, ADH (V1), TRH, Histamine (H1), Angiotensin II, Gastrin

30

Intracellular receptor

VETTT CAP
VitD, Estrogen, Testosterone, T3/T4, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Progesterone

31

Intrinsic tyrosine kinase

Insulin, IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF
(Ras-Raf-MAPKK-MAP kinase pathway)

32

Receptor-associated tyrosine kinase

PIGG(L)ET
- Prolactin, Immunomodulators (cytokines, IL-2, IL-6, IFN), GH, G-CSF, Erythropoietin, Thrombopoietin
(acidophils and cytokines)
(JAK/STAT pathway)

33

Increased SHBG in men

Gynecomastia

34

Decreased SHBG in women

hirsutism

35

Thyroid hormone effect on energy metabolism

Increased glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis

36

T3/T4 -ve fb

Decreases sensitivity of ant. pit. to TRH

37

Wolff-Chaikoff effect

Temporarily inhibits thyroid peroxidase (decreases organification)

38

Decreased TBG

Hepatic failure, steroids

39

Increased TBG

Pregnancy or OCP use

40

Propylthiouracil

Inhibits peroxidase and 5-deiodinase

41

Methimazole

Inhibits peroxidase

42

Peripheral T4-T3 conversion

5-deiodinase

43

Prolactin inhibits...

GnRH