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Flashcards in GI Random Deck (43):
1

Rostral fold closure

sternal defects

2

Lateral fold closure

omphalocele, gastroschisis

3

Caudal fold closure

bladder exstrophy

4

Double bubble sign

Duodenal atresia

5

Midgut herniates through umbilical ring @ ____ week, and returns to abdomen + rotates around SMA @ _____week. with a _____degree _____turn

6th and 10th
270, counterclockwise turn

6

Congenital pyloric stenosis

Hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis

7

Retroperitoneal structures

SAD PUCKER
- Suprarenal (adrenal) gland
- Aorta and IVC
- Duodenum (parts 2-4)
- Pancreas (except tail)
- Ureters
- Colon (descending and ascending)
- Kidneys
- Esophagus (thoracic part)
- Rectum (partially)

8

Painless jaundice

tumor at head of pancreas obstructing common bile duct alone

9

Falciform ligament

Contains ligamentum teres hepatis
- derivative of fetal umbilical vein

10

Spenorenal ligament

Contains splenic artery and vein, tail of pancreas

11

GI nerve plexuses

Submucosal = Meissner
Myenteric = Auerbach

12

Serosa vs. adventitia

Intraperitoneal vs. retroperitoneal

13

basal electrical rhythm (slow waves) of GI

Stomach - 3 waves/min
Duodenum - 12 waves/min
Ileum - 8-9 waves/min

14

Vertebral levels of (celiac/SMA/IMA)

T12/L1
L1
L3

15

Blocked blood supply of stomach?

Poor anastomoses - short gastric
Strong anastomoses - L/R gastroepiploics, L/R gastrics

16

Common location for anal fissure

Below the pectinate line POSTERIORLY

17

Liver: Zone 1 (peripheral)

- Affected 1st by viral hepatitis
- Ingested toxins (eg. cocaine)

18

Liver: Zone 2 (intermediate)

- yellow fever

19

Liver: Zone 3 (pericentral vein/centrilobular)

- affected 1st by ischemia
- contains cytochrome P-450 system
- most sensitive to metabolic toxins
- site of alcoholic hepatitis

20

Femoral triangle contents

lateral to medial to find your NAVEL
- Nerve (not in femoral sheath)
- Artery
- Vein
- Empty space
- Lymphatics

21

Inguinal crease

Lateral border of femoral artery (site of fem.n. block)

22

Direct hernia covering

External spermatic fascia only

23

Gastrin receptor

CCK(B) receptor acting on Gq

24

Pancreatic secretions: low flow vs. high flow

high Cl- vs. high HCO3-
(both are isotonic fluid)

25

Carbohydrate absorption

Glucose and galactose - SGLT1 (Na+ dependent)
Fructose - GLUT5
All @ basal - GLUT2

26

D-xylose absorption test

distinguishes GI mucosal damage from other causes of malabsorption

27

Bile salts

Bile acids conjugated to glycine or taurine making them water soluble

28

Rate limiting step of bile acid synthesis

Cholesterol 7(alpha)-hydroxylase

29

Enzymes in heme breakdown

Heme oxygenase (heme to biliverdin)
- requires O2, NADH, NADPH
- produces CO, Fe3+

Biliverdin reductase (biliverdin to bilirubin)

30

Embryonal vascular ischemia

- Jejunal, ileal, colonic atresia
- Apple peel atresia

31

Most common tracheoeosophageal anomaly

EA w/ distal TEF (air in stomach)

32

Largest number of goblet cells in SI + location of peyers patches

Ileum

33

SMA syndrome

3rd part of duodenum trapped under SMA causing obstruction

34

Venous drainage above and below pectinate line

Above - superior rectal vein --> IMA --> portal system
Below - inferior rectal vein --> internal pudendal vein --> internal iliac vein

35

Painless jaundice

tumor in head of pancreas obstructing ONLY the common bile duct

36

Salivary gland tumors: Pleomorphic adenoma

- Benign mixed tumor (most common tumor)
- Painless mobile mass
- Chondromyxoid stroma + epithelium

37

Salivary gland tumors: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

- Most common malignant
- Painless, slow-growing
- Mucinous and squamous

38

Salivary gland tumors: Warthin tumor

- Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum
- Benign cystic tumor w/ germinal centers

39

Behcet syndrome

Apthous ulcer + genital ulcers + uveitis

40

Mallory-Weiss syndrome can lead to...

Boerhaave syndrome (possible w/ pneumomediastium)

41

Do esophageal varices cause pain?

NO

42

Nocturnal cough, dyspnea and adult-onset asthma?

GERD

43

Beefy red tongue (glositis)?

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome