Enlightenment Flashcards Preview

Honors World History > Enlightenment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Enlightenment Deck (41):
1

Federal System

-States and gov't share power
-3 branches of gov't

2

Articles of Confederation

Weaker, 1st version of US Constitution

3

Diplomatic Recognition

A state acknowledging another state or gov't in control of a state

4

George Washington

Leader of the American Continental Army.
First U.S. President

5

Declaration of Independence

-approved July 4, 1776
-written by Thomas Jefferson
-Declared America's independence from Great Britain

6

First Continental Congress

meeting of delegates from 12 of 13 colonies about how to overthrow Great Britain's rule

7

American Revolution

A movement in which American colonies rebelled against Great Britain

8

Rococo

An art style that replaced Baroque art and came along with the Enlightenment. Light/happy/natural feel to it.

9

Catherine the Great

-believed in legal equality but did nothing about it due to fear of nobles
-conditions for peasants got worse and caused rebellion
-expanded Russia

10

Joseph II

son of Maria Theresa, ruler of Austria.
-eliminated serfdom & death penalty, allowed religious freedom
-too much reform too quickly, successors undid changes after his death

11

Frederick the Great

-ruler of Prussia
-limited torture, allowed some freedom of press, speech, religion
-still protected social status of nobles and army officials

12

Enlightened Absolutism

Rulers trying to enforce enlightenment ideas while maintaining royal powers

13

Natural Rights

1. Legal Equality
2. Religious Freedom
3. Freedom to own property
4. Freedom to pursue happiness

14

John Wesley

-founder of Methodist movement
-preached to lower classes
-helped abolish slavery in England in 1833

15

Salons

Areas where people met to discuss philosophy, politics, and literature.

16

Social Contract Theory

Society will agree to be governed if the government supports the general will. If not, society has the right to rebel against the government.

17

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

-believed gov't was too oppressive
-came up with Social Contract Theory
-favored emotion and reason
-still harsh to women and children

18

Geocentric

the belief that the earth is at the center of the universe

19

Cesare Beccaria

wrote against extreme capital punishment

20

Laissez-Faire

the belief that the state should not interfere with the economy

21

Adam Smith

-wrote "Wealth of Nations"
-started Laissez-Faire belief

22

Denis Diderot

-wrote 28 volume encyclopedia from 1751-1772
-attacked religious superstition
-promotes religious tolerance

23

Deism

belief in lack of heavenly interference

24

Voltaire

-promoted religious tolerance
-"all men are brothers under God"
-against tyranny and ignorance
-father of deism

25

Montesquieu

French philosophe
-identified separation of powers
-identified checks & balances and its importance.

26

John Locke

English philosopher who believed humans are shaped by experiences

27

Philosophe

writers, journalists, economists who were social reformers. Mostly French, some English.

28

Tabula Rasa

"blank slate"
belief that humans are born blank, and are shaped by surroundings and experiences.

29

The Enlightenment

era from 1620's to 1780's in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and industrialism rather than traditional lines of authority

30

Galileo Galilei

Italian astronomer
-objects in space are physical
-church opposed his idea
-Universal law of acceleration
-supported heliocentrism
-improved telescope

31

Maria Winkelmann

first woman to discover a comet. less recognition because she was a woman.

32

Nicolaus Copernicus

Father of the heliocentric model

33

Rene Descartes

French philosopher
-father of rationalism
-Doubted own existence
-"I think, therefore I am"

34

Rationalism

the belief that everything can be explained with reason.

35

Isaac Newton

English physicist, astronomer, and philosopher
-discovered 3 laws of motion
-Universal Law of Gravitation
-said physical universe is predictable
-said people must be predictable, too

36

Francis Bacon

English philosopher who developed the Scientific Method

37

Johannes Kepler

German astronomer who discovered 3 laws of planetary motion and supported/improved the heliocentric model.

38

Robert Boyle

Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, and theological writer. Father of modern chemistry

39

Margaret Cavendish

English scientist/philosopher who published revolutionary literature. Taken less seriously because she was a woman.

40

Hellocentric

The model that puts the Sun at the center of the universe.

41

Bill of Rights

First 10 amendments of the US Constitution.