Flashcards in Enlightenment Deck (41):
-States and gov't share power
-3 branches of gov't
Articles of Confederation
Weaker, 1st version of US Constitution
A state acknowledging another state or gov't in control of a state
Leader of the American Continental Army.
First U.S. President
Declaration of Independence
-approved July 4, 1776
-written by Thomas Jefferson
-Declared America's independence from Great Britain
First Continental Congress
meeting of delegates from 12 of 13 colonies about how to overthrow Great Britain's rule
A movement in which American colonies rebelled against Great Britain
An art style that replaced Baroque art and came along with the Enlightenment. Light/happy/natural feel to it.
Catherine the Great
-believed in legal equality but did nothing about it due to fear of nobles
-conditions for peasants got worse and caused rebellion
son of Maria Theresa, ruler of Austria.
-eliminated serfdom & death penalty, allowed religious freedom
-too much reform too quickly, successors undid changes after his death
Frederick the Great
-ruler of Prussia
-limited torture, allowed some freedom of press, speech, religion
-still protected social status of nobles and army officials
Rulers trying to enforce enlightenment ideas while maintaining royal powers
1. Legal Equality
2. Religious Freedom
3. Freedom to own property
4. Freedom to pursue happiness
-founder of Methodist movement
-preached to lower classes
-helped abolish slavery in England in 1833
Areas where people met to discuss philosophy, politics, and literature.
Social Contract Theory
Society will agree to be governed if the government supports the general will. If not, society has the right to rebel against the government.
-believed gov't was too oppressive
-came up with Social Contract Theory
-favored emotion and reason
-still harsh to women and children
the belief that the earth is at the center of the universe
wrote against extreme capital punishment
the belief that the state should not interfere with the economy
-wrote "Wealth of Nations"
-started Laissez-Faire belief
-wrote 28 volume encyclopedia from 1751-1772
-attacked religious superstition
-promotes religious tolerance
belief in lack of heavenly interference
-promoted religious tolerance
-"all men are brothers under God"
-against tyranny and ignorance
-father of deism
-identified separation of powers
-identified checks & balances and its importance.
English philosopher who believed humans are shaped by experiences
writers, journalists, economists who were social reformers. Mostly French, some English.
belief that humans are born blank, and are shaped by surroundings and experiences.
era from 1620's to 1780's in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and industrialism rather than traditional lines of authority
-objects in space are physical
-church opposed his idea
-Universal law of acceleration
first woman to discover a comet. less recognition because she was a woman.
Father of the heliocentric model
-father of rationalism
-Doubted own existence
-"I think, therefore I am"
the belief that everything can be explained with reason.
English physicist, astronomer, and philosopher
-discovered 3 laws of motion
-Universal Law of Gravitation
-said physical universe is predictable
-said people must be predictable, too
English philosopher who developed the Scientific Method
German astronomer who discovered 3 laws of planetary motion and supported/improved the heliocentric model.
Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, and theological writer. Father of modern chemistry
English scientist/philosopher who published revolutionary literature. Taken less seriously because she was a woman.
The model that puts the Sun at the center of the universe.