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Flashcards in Epidemiology-Long Cohort Studies Deck (14)
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1
Q

What factors go into the design of a cohort study?

A

Timing, selection of cohort and comparison groups, measurements of exposure, ensuring follow-up and measurements of outcomes.

2
Q

When do you start a prospective cohort study? Historical/retrospective?

A

Prospective = start study prior to outcome. Retrospective/historical = look at data collected before the outcome and trace records leading up to the outcome that already occurred.

3
Q

What are the pros and cons of a retrospective cohort study?

A

Pros = cheap and fast, efficient with long developing diseases. Cons = data may be inadequate and you're stuck with it.

4
Q

What are the pros and once of a prospective cohort study?

A

Pros = better exposure and confounder data, less vulnerable to bias. Cons = expensive, lengthy and not efficient for long-developing diseases.

5
Q

When might you do a special cohort study?

A

With rare exposures (occupation, dietary habits, lifestyle, medical treatments). You find a group of people with the particular exposure of interest.

6
Q

When might you use a general cohort study?

A

With common exposures among the general population.

7
Q

What is your ideal population for your study?

A

Unexposed are similar to exposed in all aspects except for the exposure, free of outcome at start of study, and had the opportunity for exposure of interest.

8
Q

What are different ways you can choose possible comparison groups?

A

Internal comparison (Framingham, divide single cohort into exposed and unexposed). External comparison (Occupational, compare an entire exposed population to an entire unexposed population). Compare exposed cohort with general population data.

9
Q

What is a draw-back to comparing your exposed group to the general population?

A

Healthy worker effect. You are comparing people who are healthy enough to work to a population that probably has more sick people in it to start with.

10
Q

What type of study was Framingham?

A

Prospective, geographic, internal comparison of exposed and unexposed groups.

11
Q

How were the exposures measured in the Framingham heart study?

A

Direct physical exams every 2 years, questionnaires and pre-existing record evaluation.

12
Q

How were outcomes measured in the Framingham study?

A

Analysis of death certificates, health records, questionnaires, and medical exams for new coronary events (MI, angina pectoris, stroke and other CV disease).

13
Q

What conditions must be met in order for a risk factor to become a cause?

A

Temporality, Consistency, Strength of Association, Dose-Response, Plausibility, Reversibility, Specificity and Analogy.

14
Q

How can you adjust your prospective cohort study if you think of new exposures you want to include?

A

Start a new cohort or go back in time to look and see if they had the new exposure of interest (a nested case-control study within your cohort study).

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