Clinical Reasoning-Hypertension Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Reasoning-Hypertension Deck (11)
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1
Q

How does prehypertension affect your risk of having a stroke or coronary event?

A

It doubles it.

2
Q

When measuring someone's systolic and diastolic blood pressures, what are the best values to consider in elderly? In youth?

A

In the elderly, increases in systolic and pulse pressures are the best predictors. In youth increases in diastolic pressure is the best predictor of CHD events.

3
Q

What is hypertension defined as? 

A

A sustained systolic BP > 140 OR a diastolic BP > 90.

4
Q

What complications arise in other organs as a result of hypertension?

A

*

5
Q

How does hypertension actually increase atherosclerotic plaques even if you are watching your cholesterol?

A

Shear stress = endothelial injury and thrombus formation.

6
Q

How does hypertension ultimately lead to heart failure or MI?

A

*

7
Q

A patient comes to the ED with a blood pressure of 190/120. Why is this a hypertensive emergency?

A

Retinal hemorrhage, acute kidney damage, acute heart failure, MI and intracerebral hemorrhage.

8
Q

What are some of the hypothesis explaining essential hypertension?

A

*

9
Q

What secondary causes of hypertension have been identified?

A

Sleep apnea, drugs, kidney disease, obesity, Cushing's, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and aortic coarctation.

10
Q

How does renal artery stenosis cause hypertension?

A

Glomerulus senses decreased perfusion and releases increasing amounts of renin.

11
Q

What is resistant hypertension?

A

Uncontrolled hypertension despite treatment with 3 separate medications.

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