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Flashcards in Epistemology Deck (46)
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What is epistemology?

The rational study of knowledge


What is skepticism

The practice of questioning the reliability of our knowledge


What does cogito ergo sum mean

I think therefore I am


Who was Pythagoras

A man who travelled east to be educated and then became a teacher of mathematics, astronomy, and music


What is Pythagoras' idea of the transmigration of souls

Basically samsara, we have an endless cycle of deaths and rebirths until we are enlightened


What is anemnesis

The process of recollecting what we already knew before birth


What is rationalism

The belief that we create knowledge within our mind


What is a priori knowledge

Innate knowledge. Knowledge before experience


What did Aristotle believe in regards to platos forms

There is no separation between the form and the actual object


What is empiricism

The belief that we gather knowledge through our sense experiences


What does a posteriori mean

Knowledge from experiences


What three laws of thought did Aristotle introduce

Law of non-contradiction, law of the excluded middle, and the law of identity


What was platos criteria for knowledge

Justified true belief


What happened in Descartes first meditation?

He noticed that his senses are deceptive.
He can't know for certain if he is awake or asleep
He is dreaming of things that do exist or versions of things that do
Therefore our mind is making rational inferences on things we have seen


What is a tabula rasa and who believed it

Blank slate, British empiricists John Locke and David Hume


How did Locke respond to philosophers claims that the eyes and ears deceive

He created primary and secondary qualities


What is epistemological dualism

It's the belief that the observer and the object are separate and the observers ideas of the external objects are representations


What is the correspondence theory of truth

The theory that there is an external reality that humans are capable of mirroring accurately in their thoughts and knowledge


What did Berkeley contend regarding lockes primary and secondary qualities

Even primary qualities are interpreted by the observer


What is esse est percipi and who said it

To be is to be perceived, George Berkeley


What is the belief that their is no separation between the observer and the object

Subjective idealism


What did Hume believe with the epistemological gap

That there is a separation between the object and the over server


What term did Hume use to describe things like scientific propositions

Matter of fact/ analytic necessary


What term did Hume use to describe the way our mind derives other propositions with relationships of words or numbers and adhering to grammatical rules

Relations of ideas/ synthetic impressions


Can we be more certain of matter of facts or relations of ideas

Relations of ideas


What are our synthetic a priori concepts

Time, space, motion, solidity, cause and effect


What is the world that we can know with perception and our innate concepts

Phenomenal realm


What is noumenal world

The world that is objective that we can never know


What is the coherence theory of truth

The theory that things can only be proven true through their overall agreement or how they correspond to nature or reality


What is the pragmatic theory of truth

There are limits to what we can assert as true and try acknowledge that we actively construct knowledge rather than passively take in it