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RUSVM Theriogenology 2017 > Equine Repro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equine Repro Deck (249)
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1

What areas of the equine repro tract harbor bacteria?

Clitoral fossa
Clitoral sinuses

2

What is the most sensitive organ to hormonal stimulation in the horse?

Cervix

3

Describe the cervix under the influence of progesterone

Closed
Dry
Homogenous appearance on ultrasound

4

Describe the cervix under the influence of estrogen

Low
relaxed
moist
hypertrophic and edematous
"cartwheel" shaped n ultrasound

5

Describe the cervix during midestrus

Moist and on the floor of the vagina
Dorsal frenulum is present

6

What is different about the cervix of the equine compared to other species?

always dilatable due to the absence of fibrous rings

7

Describe the Uterus in the mare compared to the cow

Y- or T-shaped ovaries
more lateral than cow

8

Why are the endometrial folds critical in the equine repro tract?

reproductive management
defense

9

Where do you find unfertilized ova in the equine?

Oviduct

10

When do fertilized ova descend into the uterus?

day 5.5

11

What causes the Uterotubule junction to open?

PGE

12

What is the function of the oviduct in the equine?

Sperm storage
Fertilization site
embryo transport

13

What is the hormone for maternal recognition in equine?

Prostaglandin E2

14

When would you flush the equine for embryo transfer?

day 7-8

15

What is the size of a mature follicle?

40+ mm

16

Where do follicles ovulate in the ovary?

ovulation fossa

17

Why does the follicle change shape when it ovulates?

as the follicle migrates to the ovulation fossa it changes shape from spherical to oblong

18

How many glands are in each side of the mare's udder?

2 glands

19

What is the only pathology of the mare's udder?

Mastitis

20

What gland is responsible for the mare's cyclic breeding?

Pineal gland

21

What type of breeders are equine?

Long day breeders

22

Describe how melatonine affects GnRH

High levels of Melatonin in dark days inhibit production of GnRH
Low levels of Melatonin produce GnRH

23

What happens to Mares during Winter anestrous?

About 30% show heat but only half ovulate

24

What happens during the Spring Transition in mares?

Begin to display heat but may not ovulate

25

Describe the uterus in anestrous

no ovarian activity
uterus is flaccid with no tone

26

When should you start putting the mare under lights to stimulate estrous?

60 days before

27

How many hours of light do you need to expose the mare to to affect her seasonality?

16 hours of daylight

28

Describe the Transitional period in mares

Mares have multiple variable size follicles
Uterus has estrual tone, evidence of uterine edema
Displays signs of estrus for variable length of time
Ends with the first ovulation of the year

29

How can you reduce the length of the Transitional period?

Progesterone
Progestagens
Dopamine antagonists
Domperidone
Sulpiride

30

What would cause a mare to mount another mare?

testosterone secreting pathology

31

What can you use to induce ovulation?

Human chorionic gonadotropin
Deslorelin injectable
Recombinant LH

32

What is the problem with hCG?

High antigenicity due to the large molecule size

33

What is the advantage of using Deslorelin (GnRH)?

Induces more effectively and over a shorter period of time

34

When does the CL reach maximum maturity level?

day 4-5

35

What are possible causes of failure to respond to ovulatory inducing agents?

"immature follicles" with not enough LH receptors
Mares are not in estrus even though a large follicle is present
Anovulatory follicles

36

HAF

Hemorrhagic Anovulatory Follicles

37

Hemorrhagic Anovulatory Follicles (HAF)

Fails to ovulate in response to ovulatory inducing agents

38

What are the options for luteolysis and estrus induction?

PGF 2 alpha
Cloprostenol

39

What is the estrus interval average after luteolysis?

3-5 days

40

What is the ovulation interval after luteolysis?

8-10 days

41

Where is PGF 2 alpha metabolized?

in the lungs

42

What are the side effects of PGF 2 alpha?

Diarrhea
Abdominal cramps
sweating

43

When is the CL responsive to prostaglandin?

5 days

44

What are the wrong used of Prostaglandin?

Ovulation induction
Uterine evacuation post-ovulation
Induction of parturition

45

What determines the interval between prostaglandin injection and ovulation?

Size of the follicle at the time of treatment

46

What are the factors that maximize your chances of a pregnant mare?

Good management
Clean Mare
Good Timing
Good semen

47

How many days from the time of ovulation to the next time the mare shows heat?

15 days

48

How often can a stallion breed per day?

2-4 times

49

What is the limiting factor for number o times a stallion breeds per day?

Libido

50

Describe Endometrial Edema Grade 4

Thicker
Hypo-echoic center
Hyper-echoic wall
More prominent at the uterine body but still maintains a nice uterine architecture
"cart wheel"

51

Describe Endometrial Edema Grade 5
Hyper-edema

Very thick endometrial folds loss of "normal" US architecture
Increased surface area, often free fluid not observed
Follicles variable

52

When should you breed pre-ovulation with natural breeding in the mare?

72-48 hours pre ovulation

53

When should you breed pre-ovulation with Fresh semen in the mare?

less than 48 hours pre ovulation

54

When should you breed pre-ovulation with fresh cooled semen in the mare?

24-36 hours pre ovulation

55

When should you breed pre-ovulation with frozen semen in the mare?

less than 12 hours pre ovulation

56

Why do we not want to inseminate post ovulation in the mare?

DNA damage is very quick once the egg is released

57

Definition of proper artificial insemination

Deposition of good quality semen into the uterus of a clean mare at the right time

58

What are the advantages of AI in the mare?

Maximize efficiency of stallion usage
Increase genetic pool due to increased availability of stallions
More regular evaluation of stallion semen
Reduce risk of sexually transmittable diseases
Increases safety of animals and handlers

59

What is the main factor contributing to sperm migration to the oviduct of the mare?

Uterine contractility

60

Where are sperm deposited in the mare?

Uterus

61

What is responsible for eliminating excess fluid from the uterus in the mare?

Myometrial contractions

62

What is the order of fertility in mares?

1. Young Maiden Mare
2. Early Foaling Mares
3. Barren Mares
4. Old Maiden Mares

63

What type of insemination is used in mares to reduce inflammation and increase pregnancy rates with difficult stallions?

Deep Horn Insemination

64

What is the order of best treatment options for mares that do not become pregnant when bred with good semen under excellent management conditions?

1. Embryo transfer
2. Oocyte transfer
3. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

65

What are the indications for embryo transfer in mares?

Young mares in competition
Mares with severe uterine problems
More than one foal a year
Biopsy for desired outcome (HERDA, HYPP, GEBD, EPSM, Gender)

66

Indications for Cytoplasmic Sperm injection

Old mares where it is not possible to retrieve an embryo
Oviductal disease
Mares that have died
Use of stallions with very limited amount of semen available

67

Indications for Oocyte transfer

Old mares where it is not possible to retrieve an embryo
Oviductal disease
Mares with unexplained infertility

68

Describe proper vulvar conformation

vulva is 1/3 above and 2/3 below the pelvic bone

69

What is the most reliable way to examine the patency of the cervix?

digital examination during diestrus

70

What happens in maiden mares cervixes?

cervix will start to loose its functional integrity
The muscle layer undergoes a marked atrophy and the cervix becomes a collagenous tube that does not dilate

71

What are the different pathology of the cervix in the mare?

Fails to relax and open during estrus
Fails to close during diestrus
Adhesions

72

What is the most common bacteria causing endometritis in mares?

Streptococcus zooepidemicus
Escherichia coli

73

When would you perform a uterine biopsy?

Repeated embyronic death
Repeated abortions
Fail to respond to treatment
Unable to diagnose uterine pathology with routine swab
Prognosis of pregnancy

74

Grade III Uterine Biopsy

Severe fibrosis
Nest of glands isolated throughout the uterus
Severe damage to the uterus

75

What happens to edema as the mare reaches ovulation?

Edema starts to decrease toward ovulation

76

When do you see the most significant decrease in edema before ovulation in the mare?

18-36 hours pre ovulation

77

If you see high uterine edema what does that signal in the mare?

Low fertility

78

What are the causes of Failure to cycle in the mare?

Winter anestrous
Transitional mare
Pregnancy
Endocrine
Uterine Pathology

79

What causes Prolonged diestrus/pseudopregnancy in the mare?

CL lifespan prolonged beyond day 15
Diestral ovulations
Early embryonic death after maternal recognition of pregnancy 15-35 days
Failure of PGF 2 alpha release due to uterine abnormality: pyometra

80

What is the cause of Failure to cycle?

Aged mares stop cycling
Limited number of oocytes
Low body condition score
negative energy balance
Anterior Pituitary dysfunction
Adrenal problem
Tumors

81

What is the most common Gondal dysgenesis in the mare?

Turner's Syndrome: small ovaries and infantile tract

82

What is the most common hermaphrodite?

Male Hermaphrodite

83

What are the tumors of the mare repro tract?

Teratoma
Dysgerminoma
Cystadenoma
Granulosa cell tumor
Granulosa-thecal cell tumor

84

What is the most common tumor of the equine repro tract?

Granulosa-Thecal Cell tumor

85

Clinical signs of Granulosa-Thecal cell tumors

Aggressive
Nymphomania
stallion-like
Anestrus

86

What is the treatment of Granulosa-Thecal cell tumors?

Remove ovary

87

How do you diagnose Granulosa-Thecal cell tumor in mares?

Measure Inhibin

88

What are the barriers to infection?

Vulva
vestibulo-vaginal fold
Cervix

89

Types of Endometritis in the mare

Breeding induced
Persistent breeding induced
Acute Bacterial
Chronic Bacterial
Chronic Degenerative

90

What causes Persistent Breeding Induced Endometritis in the mare?

Mares unable to evacuate residual fluid from the uterus due to poor uterine contractility or a poorly relaxed cervix are categorized as susceptible to uterine infections

91

What are the effects of uterine pathology on ovarian function?

Anestrus
Short luteal phases
Prolonged luteal phases

92

What type of bacteria causes short luteal phases?

Gram negative bacteria

93

What does Gram positive bacteria cause in the mare?

Inflammation affecting the uterine lining causing PGF 2 alpha to not be released

94

When should we culture the biopsy in the mare?

Mares that continue to accumulate fluid
Mares that ovulate with hyper-edema
Mares that show premature presence of uterine edema

95

Therapy for Persistent Mating induced Endometritis

Reduce the degree of inflammation
Reduce the time the fluid is accumulated

96

What are the predisposing factors of Chronic bacterial or fungal endometritis?

Poor perineal conformation
Cervical incompetence
Poor uterine contractility

97

What is the therapy for Biofilms in mares?

Acetylcisteine
DMSO
EDTA
Gentocin
Kerosene

98

Cause of Early embryonic death

Embryonic abnormalities
Insufficient maternal P4
Failed MRP
stress
disease
Inadequate endometrium
Endometritis

99

Signs of Embryonic Death

Small size for gestational age
Irregular vesicle prior to day 20
Absence of a heart beat at day 28-30
Free fluid or disseminated edema in a pregnant mare

100

Abortion

loss of a pregnancy once the fetal stage has started
45+ days - birth

101

What is the most common cause of non-infectious abortion?

Twinning

102

What are the three routes of infection in the mare?

Transcervical
Hematogenous
Previous intrauterine infection

103

What is the most common cause of infectious infertility in the mare?

Herpes Virus

104

What is the most common cause of endometritis in the mare?

Streptococcus Zooepidemicus

105

What is the signalment for Equine Herpes Virus 1?

Mares 5,7,9 months of gestation

106

What are the lesions of EHV 1?

Hydrothorax
pulmonary edema
hepatic necrotic foci
eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the foci in of the liver

107

EHV III

Coital exanthema
Transmitted by the stallion
Self-limiting
Secondary bacterial infection
Remove from service until heal

108

Clinical signs of EVA

Fever
depression
Rhinitis
conjunctivitis
Ventral edema
Abortion 3-10 months

109

What is the only true venereal sexually transmissible disease in mares?

Contagious Equine Metritis

110

How do you diagnose Taylorella equigenitalis?

Culture penis, urethra, preejaculatory fluid and semen

111

When is the earliest a pregnancy can be diagnosed in the mare?

10- 16 days post ovulation

112

What are you checking for on days 28-32 on ultrasound in the mare?

Normal embryonic development
Presence of a heartbeat
Checking for one embryo

113

Vesicular morphology

Embyronic disk is always on the ventral side of the vesicle

114

What is responsible for maternal recognition in the mare?

Estrogen production + contact of the embryo = blockage of Prostaglandin production

115

When does the embryo fixate in the mare?

day 16

116

Describe the embryo on day 28-32

the embryo is in the middle of the vesicle and half is yolk sac and half is amniotic fluid

117

Describe the embryo at day 35-37

the embryo reaches the top of the vesicle and then becomes too heavy and the embryo falls to the ventral part of the vesicle

118

At what day is the embryo fully formed?

After day 45

119

When can you identify the genital tubercle?

day 55-65

120

What maintains the pregnancy until day 160?

CL

121

What occurs on day 100-120?

Gonads develop and produce estrone sulfate

122

What maintains the pregnancy after day 160?

progestagins from the fetal placental unit

123

What can cause twinning?

Ovulatory inducing agents

124

What is the method for twin reduction?

Spontaneous reduction
Manual reduction
Transvaginal Aspiration
Manual trauma with membrane rupture
Craneo-cervical dislocation
Intracardiac injection of KCl
Surgery
Diet

125

Mummification

death in the absence of bacterial infection

126

Maceration

dead fetus with bacterial contamination

127

What is the treatment for Mummification or Maceration?

Removal of fetus
Uterine lavage and antibiotics

128

How deep should the amniotic and allantoic fluids be?

7.9 +/- 3.5cm and 13.4 +/- 4.4cm

129

What are the most reliable parameters to indicate fetal well-being?

FHR/FHR reactivity

130

Signs of Placentitis

Purulent vulval discharge
Udder development
Premature lactation
Cervical dilation

131

What is the therapy for Ascending Placentitis?

Antibiotic that crosses the placenta
Anti-inflammatories
Uterine relaxants
+/- Uterine Blood flow

132

What is common in older multiparous mares?

Vaginal varicose veins

133

What is a normal incidental finding in pregnant mares?

Allantoic vesicles

134

What is the most common Hydropic condition in mares?

Hydro-allantois

135

How do you treat Colic due to pregnancy in mares?

Altrenogest supplementation
Flunixin Meglumine
Antibiotics

136

When does Uterine torsion occur?

Late gestation

137

What is the treatment for Uterine Torsion?

Rolling
Flank approach
Ventral midline if foal is dead

138

How do you treat ventral abdominal edema?

diuretics and exercise

139

Characteristics of Pre-pubic tendon rupture of the mare

Cranial displacement of the udder
Obvious abdominal drop
Sero-sanguinous to bloody mammary secretion

140

Prolonged gestation

greater than 360-380 days

141

What are the causes of prolonged gestation?

Relationship to photoperiod
10 days longer in early spring than mid summer
Arrest of embryonic/fetal development may occur in early pregnancy lasting 3-5 weeks

142

What does Fescue cause?

Decreased milk production due to low prolactin
Prolonged gestation or even abortion
Weak or dead foals
Dystocia

143

How do you treat Fescue toxicosis?

Remove source 30-45 days before parturition
Domperidone

144

When should a pregnant mare be vaccinated?

10 months of gestation with all annuals and antibodies for colostrum

145

How should you prepare the mare for foaling?

Vaccination
Deworm
Nutrition
Exercise

146

What is the normal mare gestation length?

320-365 days

147

When would you open the Caslick before parturition?

1 weeks

148

In how many weeks is parturition due in the mare with udder enlargement?

2-4 weeks

149

In how many days is parturition due in the mare with clear watery secretions from the udder?

4-5 days

150

How many days is parturition due in the mare with Thick, sticky clear or yellowish exudate from the udder?

24-48 hours

151

How many days is parturition due in the mare with Thick, waxy exudate on the udder?

24-48 hours

152

Describe the first stage of labor in the mare

Cervix relaxes
uterine contractions
Fetal rotation
Restless mare
sweating

153

Describe the second stage of labor in the mare

Uterine contractions intensify
Sweating
fetus enters the birth canal
Chorio-allantoic membrane ruptures
Abdominal contractions
Amnion appears at vulva

154

What are the requirements for induction in the mare?

greater than 330 days of gestation
Cervix is open atleast 3 fingers
Colostrum or milk in udder

155

Why would you induce at 315 days?

compromised mare

156

What is the effect of using Prostaglandin for parturition induction?

Explosive birth with torn cervix
Foals broken ribs and ruptured bladder

157

What is the method of choice for inducing parturition in the mare?

Oxytocin

158

What is the method of choice for inducing parturition in a compromised mare?

Steroids

159

Describe stage three of labor in the mare

Expulsion of the placenta or fetal membranes
Normal delivery within 3 hours

160

How many layers of the Placenta in the mare?

6 layers

161

What type of placenta do mares have?

Epitheliochorial
Diffuse
Micro-cotyledonary

162

Which horn is often the horn that becomes torn in the mare?

The non pregnant horn

163

Dystocia

The inability of the mare to culminate the second stage of labor

164

When do you suspect Dystocia?

if the mare is actively straining, chorioallantois breaks and no visible progress in 10-15 minutes

165

Red Bag

Premature Placental Separation

166

What are the problems associated with Red Bag deliveries?

Prolonged labor
Meconium release
Foal Anoxia/Asphixia
Dummy foal

167

How do you relieve Dystocia in the mare?

Traction
Fetotomy
C-section
Reposition
Repulsion and reposition
Flotation

168

What are the options for C-section in the mare?

Flank
Ventral

169

How do you minimize contractions while fixing the dystocia?

Injectable clenbuterol
Sedation with xylazine and butorphanol

170

What are the risk factors for Septic Metritis?

Cleanliness of foaling area
Retained placenta
Ascending placentitis
Obstetric manipulations

171

Clinical signs of Septic Metritis

Fever
depression
tachycardia
injected mucous membranes
Positive digital pulses
Distended uterus with large amounts of fluid

172

What is Septic Metritis associated with in the mare?

E. coli
Klebsiella pneumoniae

173

Therapy for Septic Metritis

Systemic antibiotics
NSAIDs
Prevention of endotoxemia-laminitis complex
Uterine Lavage

174

Therapy for Hemorrahge Post-Partum clinical signs

Xylazine and Butorphanol
Replenish fludis
Aminocaproic acid
Yunnan baiyao
IV therapy with Formalin

175

Uterine tears/rupture clinical signs

Depression
Anorexia
colic
fever

176

Therapy for Uterine tears/rupture

Surgical
Oxytocin
Antibiotics
NSAIDs
Fluid therapy
abdominal lavage

177

What is contraindicated in Uterine tears/rupture therapy?

Uterine lavage

178

Risk factors of Uterine Prolapse

Dystocia
Retained placenta
Persistent straining

179

Therapy for Uterine Prolapse

Wash and assess uterus for tears
Start replacing the uterus from the most distal place
Uterine lavage
Supportive therapy

180

Rectal prolapse

forceful straining during dystocia resulting in rectal prolapse could result in avascular rectal necrosis

181

Recto vaginal fistula

Foal's perforates the roof of the vagina and wall of rectum

182

Treatment for Recto Vaginal fistula

Heal by second intention
Repair surgically if feces are still found in the vagina or vestibule

183

Third degree perineal lacerations

tears of the ventral rectal wall and dorsal vaginal wall forming a cloaca

184

How do you treat bladder atony?

Buthanecol

185

Risk factors of Retained Fetal Membranes

Abortion
Induction of parturition
C-section
Dystocia
Twin pregnancy
Placentitis
Pain
Hydropic conditions
Hypocalcemia
Low Vit. E and Se

186

Treatment for Retained Fetal Membranes

Oxytocin
IV calcium Borogluconate
Burns technique
Manual removal
Antibiotics: TMS in the uterus

187

Burns Technique

infusion of large volume of fluid in the unruptured chorio-allantoic space to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release

188

When is the foal heat?

day 6 after parturition
ovulate on day 10

189

When do you have uterine involution in the mare?

Day 14

190

What method of collection would you use in a stallion with neurologic problems or lameness?

Ground collection

191

What drugs are used for chemical ejaculation in the stallion?

Norepinephrine
Imipramine
Xylazine

192

Describe the stallion semen characteristics

50mL
120x10^6 sperm concentration
5-15x10^9 total sperm
Greater than 60% sperm motility
Greater than 60% normal morphology

193

What is a common perm abnormality in the stallion?

Abaxial aberration of the tail

194

What is Spermatogenic epithelium in the semen of the stallion a sign of?

Testicular degeneration

195

What does low seminal plasma ALP mean?

there is a blockage in the epididymis

196

What does a high seminal plasma ALP mean?

no sperm present in the testes

197

How much sperm is present in fresh semen for AI?

500 milllion

198

How much sperm is present in cooled semen for AI?

1 billion

199

How much sperm is present in frozen semen for AI?

Load 800 million to 1 billion
Minimum of 240 million after thawing

200

Pyospermia

pus in the semen

201

Hemospermia

blood in the semen

202

Urospermia

Urine in the semen

203

If you find pyospermia in the presperm fraction where is it coming from?

bulbourethral glands, urethra

204

If you find pyospermia in the sperm rich fraction where is it coming from?

Epididymis
ampullae

205

If you find pyospermia in the sperm poor fraction where is it coming from?

Prostate
vesicular glands

206

If you find pyospermia in the gel fraction where is it coming from?

Vesicular glands

207

What is the treatment for hemospermia?

Sexual rest
depends on the source of the blood

208

What is a source of hematuria in geldings?

Tear in the mucosa of the urethra

209

What is the treatment for a tear in the mucosa of the urethra in geldings?

Cauterize
Sexual rest

210

Causes of Urospermia in the stallion

Cauda equina neuritis
EHV-1
HPP
Cystitis or urolithiasis
Fractures
osteomyelitis
neoplasia
idiopathic

211

Treatment for urospermia in stallions

Completely empty bladder before ejaculation
Furosemide to dilute any urine
Bladder lavage
Dilute raw semen immediately
Alpha-adrenergics: imipramine and Phenylpropanolamine

212

Retrograde ejaculation in the stallion

Semen in the bladder

213

When is normal testicular descent in the stallion?

last 30 days in utero or first 10 days after birth

214

In what breed might you find Cryptorchidism?

QH
Percheron
ASH
ponies

215

How do you diagnose Crytorchidism?

Rectal exam
US
Resting testosterone concentration
hCG/GnRH stimulation
Basal estrone sulfate
Anti-mullerian hormone

216

What is the cause of testicular trauma in stallions?

Kick by mare

217

What is the treatment for testicular trauma in the stallion?

NSAIDs
Ice
hydrotherapy
sling
hand walking

218

What is the treatment for testicular rupture?

remove the ruptured teste to save the normal teste from damage

219

What is the treatment for Infectious Orchitis?

Antimicrobial therapy supportive therapy
Unilateral orchiectomy

220

Why should you perform a unilateral orchiectomy on infectious orchitis in the stallion?

To save the normal teste from heat and swelling

221

What is the most common neoplasia in the stallion?

Teratoma

222

What neoplasia is malignant in older stallions?

Seminoma

223

What solution should you preserve testicular neoplasia in for histopathology in the stallion?

Bouin's solution

224

Oligozoospermia

small amount (low concentration) of sperm

225

Asthenozoospermia

sperm do not move (reduce sperm motility)

226

Teratospermia

abnormal sperm morphology

227

Azoospermia

no sperm int he ejaculate

228

What is the treatment for testicular degeneration?

no treatment

229

What does testicular degeneration cause?

Oligozoospermia
Asthenozoospermia
teratospermia
azoospermia

230

How do you diagnose testicular degeneration?

biopsy

231

What cause of testicular degeneration can the testes recover from in the stallion?

prolonged elevated temperature

232

Hydrocele (vaginocele)

serous fluid between visceral and parietal layers of vaginal tunic

233

What is the cause of Hydrocele in the stallion?

Idiopathic
Extension from ascites

234

What is the treatment for Hydrocele in the stallion?

Spontaneous resolution
move to cooler environment
Exercise

235

Varicocele

Dilation of vessels of pampiniform plexus

236

What is the cause of Varicocele in stallions?

Incompetent testicular vein

237

What is the treatment for severe/acute testicular torsion in the stallion?

Surgical removal

238

What are the complications of detorsing a long term spermatic cord torsion

reprofusion injury and breach of blood teste barrier of the good teste

239

What is the treatment for penile hematoma?

Minimize hemorrhage
Tight bandage
prevent sexual arousal

240

Paraphimosis

inability to retract penis

241

Treatment of paraphimosis in stallions

Resolve cause
support penis
reduce swelling
return prepuce

242

Complications of paraphimosis in stallions

Phallectomy

243

What causes Paraphimosis in stallions?

Trauma
systemic disease
neurological
phenothiazine tranquilizers

244

Priapism

Persistent erection without sexual arousal

245

What cause priapism in stallions?

Phenothiazine tranquilizers
neurological

246

Treatment of priapism in stallions?

Anticholinergic
Beta 2 adrenergic drugs
Phenylephrine
Surgical irrigation

247

What is the most common penile neoplasia in stallions?

Squamous cell carcinoma

248

High flow priapism

Arterial supply affected

249

Low flow priapism

Venous drainage affected