Flashcards in Equine Repro Deck (249)
What areas of the equine repro tract harbor bacteria?
What is the most sensitive organ to hormonal stimulation in the horse?
Describe the cervix under the influence of progesterone
Homogenous appearance on ultrasound
Describe the cervix under the influence of estrogen
hypertrophic and edematous
"cartwheel" shaped n ultrasound
Describe the cervix during midestrus
Moist and on the floor of the vagina
Dorsal frenulum is present
What is different about the cervix of the equine compared to other species?
always dilatable due to the absence of fibrous rings
Describe the Uterus in the mare compared to the cow
Y- or T-shaped ovaries
more lateral than cow
Why are the endometrial folds critical in the equine repro tract?
Where do you find unfertilized ova in the equine?
When do fertilized ova descend into the uterus?
What causes the Uterotubule junction to open?
What is the function of the oviduct in the equine?
What is the hormone for maternal recognition in equine?
When would you flush the equine for embryo transfer?
What is the size of a mature follicle?
Where do follicles ovulate in the ovary?
Why does the follicle change shape when it ovulates?
as the follicle migrates to the ovulation fossa it changes shape from spherical to oblong
How many glands are in each side of the mare's udder?
What is the only pathology of the mare's udder?
What gland is responsible for the mare's cyclic breeding?
What type of breeders are equine?
Long day breeders
Describe how melatonine affects GnRH
High levels of Melatonin in dark days inhibit production of GnRH
Low levels of Melatonin produce GnRH
What happens to Mares during Winter anestrous?
About 30% show heat but only half ovulate
What happens during the Spring Transition in mares?
Begin to display heat but may not ovulate
Describe the uterus in anestrous
no ovarian activity
uterus is flaccid with no tone
When should you start putting the mare under lights to stimulate estrous?
60 days before
How many hours of light do you need to expose the mare to to affect her seasonality?
16 hours of daylight
Describe the Transitional period in mares
Mares have multiple variable size follicles
Uterus has estrual tone, evidence of uterine edema
Displays signs of estrus for variable length of time
Ends with the first ovulation of the year
How can you reduce the length of the Transitional period?