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RUSVM Theriogenology 2017 > Equine Repro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equine Repro Deck (249)
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1

What areas of the equine repro tract harbor bacteria?

Clitoral fossa
Clitoral sinuses

2

What is the most sensitive organ to hormonal stimulation in the horse?

Cervix

3

Describe the cervix under the influence of progesterone

Closed
Dry
Homogenous appearance on ultrasound

4

Describe the cervix under the influence of estrogen

Low
relaxed
moist
hypertrophic and edematous
"cartwheel" shaped n ultrasound

5

Describe the cervix during midestrus

Moist and on the floor of the vagina
Dorsal frenulum is present

6

What is different about the cervix of the equine compared to other species?

always dilatable due to the absence of fibrous rings

7

Describe the Uterus in the mare compared to the cow

Y- or T-shaped ovaries
more lateral than cow

8

Why are the endometrial folds critical in the equine repro tract?

reproductive management
defense

9

Where do you find unfertilized ova in the equine?

Oviduct

10

When do fertilized ova descend into the uterus?

day 5.5

11

What causes the Uterotubule junction to open?

PGE

12

What is the function of the oviduct in the equine?

Sperm storage
Fertilization site
embryo transport

13

What is the hormone for maternal recognition in equine?

Prostaglandin E2

14

When would you flush the equine for embryo transfer?

day 7-8

15

What is the size of a mature follicle?

40+ mm

16

Where do follicles ovulate in the ovary?

ovulation fossa

17

Why does the follicle change shape when it ovulates?

as the follicle migrates to the ovulation fossa it changes shape from spherical to oblong

18

How many glands are in each side of the mare's udder?

2 glands

19

What is the only pathology of the mare's udder?

Mastitis

20

What gland is responsible for the mare's cyclic breeding?

Pineal gland

21

What type of breeders are equine?

Long day breeders

22

Describe how melatonine affects GnRH

High levels of Melatonin in dark days inhibit production of GnRH
Low levels of Melatonin produce GnRH

23

What happens to Mares during Winter anestrous?

About 30% show heat but only half ovulate

24

What happens during the Spring Transition in mares?

Begin to display heat but may not ovulate

25

Describe the uterus in anestrous

no ovarian activity
uterus is flaccid with no tone

26

When should you start putting the mare under lights to stimulate estrous?

60 days before

27

How many hours of light do you need to expose the mare to to affect her seasonality?

16 hours of daylight

28

Describe the Transitional period in mares

Mares have multiple variable size follicles
Uterus has estrual tone, evidence of uterine edema
Displays signs of estrus for variable length of time
Ends with the first ovulation of the year

29

How can you reduce the length of the Transitional period?

Progesterone
Progestagens
Dopamine antagonists
Domperidone
Sulpiride

30

What would cause a mare to mount another mare?

testosterone secreting pathology