Bovine Repro Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Theriogenology 2017 > Bovine Repro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bovine Repro Deck (163)
Loading flashcards...
1

When do you see puberty in the bovine?

when heifer reaches 50-60% adult body weight

2

What influences when a heifer reaches puberty?

Inbreed later onset
Cross-breeds sooner onset
Bos Taurus earlier than Bos indicus
Heifers from bulls large scrotal circumference

3

What are the stages of the Bovine estrus cycle?

Estrus
Metestrus
Diestrus
Proestrus

4

How many days are there in the Metestrus cycle of the Bovine?

1-4 days

5

How many days are there in the Diestrus cycle of the Bovine?

5-18 days

6

Estrus

sexual receptivity of female
Follicular maturation

7

What are the signs of Estrus in the bovine?

Increased restlessness
Decreased rumination
Decreased Appetite
Decreased milk
Bellowing

8

Metestrus

Final follicular maturation
Ovulation
Formation of CL

9

Diestrus

Period of CL dominance through luteolysis

10

Proestrus

Progesterone levels decreasing
Estrogen levels increasing

11

At what age are heifers bred in the dairy herd?

14-15 months

12

Voluntary Waiting Period

The period we allow for the uterus to involute and read for pregnancy

13

How long is the VWP?

60 days

14

Dry off

60 days to allow the mammary glands to rest before calving to ensure peak lactation after calving

15

What are the advantages of synchronization?

Reduce the window of time when insemination is appropriate
Reduce the time spent in estrus detection
enhance estrus detection
Allow scheduling of breeding/inseminations
provide for synchrony essential to most embryo transfer programs

16

What re the general principles of estrus control and synch?

shorten the luteal phase
lengthen the luteal phase

17

Lutalyse or Estrumate

causes regression of the CL
Estrus displayed in 2-5 days

18

What is the feed through product that can be used to synchronize cattle?

MGA

19

How does the CIDR work?

extends the Diestrus phase

20

Why do you use GnRH with the CIDR?

induced a synchronous emergence of a new follicular wave

21

What should you examine when examining the fetus?

Presentation
Position
Posture

22

How do you assess that the fetus is alive?

position response to pedal, palpebral, eye ball, mouth, and anal pressure by movement reflex

23

What does meconium suggest about the calf?

stressed calf

24

What does fetid odor suggest about the calf?

dead calf

25

Mutation

process by which fetus is restored to deliverable fashion

26

Repulsion

Pushing the fetus out of maternal pelvis into the uterine cavity to enable correction of abnormality

27

Rotation

Turning the fetus on its longitudinal axis

28

Version

Turning the fetus on its transverse axis into a cranial or caudal presentation

29

Eye hooks

placed into the medial canthus to help turn the head into the right position

30

Krey Hook

used to grab the jaw bone
used for mostly grabbing parts of the calf when you perform a fetotomy

31

Fetotomy

cutting up parts of the calf

32

Cornell detorsion rod

detorse the calf and uterus

33

What lube do you use for dystocia?

OB tube

34

What happens if you put traction on both forelimbs of the calf simultaneously?

shoulder lock

35

What are the indications for a fetotomy?

Dead fetus
Uncorrectable fetal malposition
Delivery by traction not working
Fetomaternal disproportion
Certain fetal monsters/ ankylosis
Incomplete cervical dilation

36

What type of fetal monsters requires a C-section?

Anasarca calf

37

What is the most common fetotomy?

Partial fetotomy

38

What is included in a fetotomy aftercare?

Lavage uterus
Systemic antibiotics
Anti-inflammatories
IV or Oral calcium
IV fluids
Ecbolics: oxytocin or lutalyse

39

What are the indications for c-section?

Vaginal delivery unsafe for dam or fetus
Most time involves live fetus
Inadequate room to place fetotome
Oversize large fetus
If necessary to save the dam's life

40

What is heritable in Herefords and Shorthorns?

Vaginal prolapse

41

Grade 1 vaginal prolapse?

floor of vagina protrudes intermittently

42

Grade 2 vaginal prolapse?

Floor vagina protrudes permanently

43

Grade 3 vaginal prolapse?

Cervix and most vaginal floor protrude

44

Grade 4 vaginal prolapse?

2nd or 3rd degrees that has been exposed long enough to cause necrosis/fibrosis

45

What is the treatment for vaginal prolapse?

Clean with mild antiseptic
debride some necrotic tissue
sugar to reduce edema
manual reduction

46

What is the prevention for Vaginal prolapse?

Buhner technique
Halstead technique/Horizontal mattress
boot lace
jorvet prolapse kit

47

What would you use to treat a Grade 4 prolapse?

Bootlace

48

What predisposes to Uterine Prolapse?

Hypocalcemia
Uterine inertia
Straining

49

How do you treat Uterine prolapse?

Epidural
Clean and debride
Position the down animal in sternal and extend hindlimbs caudally
Reduce
Vulvar retention sutures
Antibiotics
Calcium therapy
Amputation

50

What are the sequela of Uterine prolapse?

Uterine artery rupture
Septicemia
Hypothermia
Strangulation of other abdominal viscera within prolapse
Reperfusion injury

51

First degree perineal laceration

only mucosa of vulva or vestibule

52

How do you treat
First degree perineal laceration?

Spontaneously heal

53

Second degree perineal laceration

Entire wall of vulva/vestibule and portion of perineal body but not the anus or rectum

54

Third degree perineal laceration

Entire wall of vagina, perineal body, rectum and anus with common opening for vagina/rectum

55

How long does uterine involution take?

25-50 days

56

What are the treatment for Retained Fetal membranes?

Antibiotic infusion
Collagenase

57

Metritis

Severe inflammation involving all layers of the uterus

58

Endmetritis

Inflammation of the endometrium extending no deeper than the stratum spongiosum

59

Pyometra

Collection of purulent exudate of variable amount within the endometrial cavity

60

What is the cause of Pyometra?

persistent corpus luteum

61

What are the clinical signs of Metritis?

Fetid red-brown watery uterine discharge

62

How do you treat Metritis?

Systemic Antibiotics
Anti-inflammatories
Uterine lavage

63

What is the treatment for Pyometra?

Remove the CL

64

What is a true anestrus?

insufficient hormonal stimulus

65

How do you treat true anestrus?

Nutrition
Eliminate stresses
Detect and treat pathology

66

How do you treat Ovarian Follicular cysts?

Spontaneous recovery
Manual rupture
Lutenize it/ lyse
Aspiration
Progesterone

67

Early Embryonic Death

Fetal death less than 8 weeks

68

Abortion

Occurs between 42 and 56 days

69

Stillbirth

Fetal death greater than 260 days

70

Clinical signs of Listeria

Abortion in the last trimester
Encephalitis
Sick infected cows before and after abortion
Foci of necrosis in the liver of the fetus
Pinpoint yellow necrotic foci on tips of cotyledonary villi

71

What are the clinical signs of Leptospirosis?

Hemolytic Anemia
Hepatic disease
Renal Disease
Abortion
Photosensitization

72

How do you diagnose Lepto?

Fluorescent Antibody - Fetal kidney or Maternal urine
PCR

73

How do you treat Lepto?

Vaccinate + tetracycline

74

What are the clinical signs of Brucella?

Abortion
Intercotyledonary areas may be dry, thickened, cracked
Moroccan leather

75

How do you diagnose Brucella?

Isolation of organism
Serological testing

76

What is important about Brucella?

Reportable Disease

77

How do you control Brucella?

vaccination

78

What are the clinical signs of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma?

Granular vulvovaginitis
Salpingitis

79

How do you diagnose Campylobacter?

Clark's media

80

How do you treat Campylobacter?

Cull bulls
Cow clears in 3-6 months

81

How do you control Campylobacter?

AI
use negative bulls
vaccine

82

How do you treat Tritrichomonas?

Use only negative bulls
Test and cull bulls
Use AI
Sexual Rest
Quarantine
Vaccines

83

What is the transmission of Neospora?

Ingestion of dog feces
Transmitted vertically

84

What are the clinical signs of Neospora?

Abortion 3rd trimester - not ill
Fetus autolysed

85

How do you diagnose Neospora?

IHC on fetal tissue and placenta
Serological testing

86

How do you prevent and control Neospora?

Dispose carcasses/placentas quickly
Prevent fecal contamination
Select negative heifers

87

What is the most common cause of viral abortion?

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis

88

What are the different types of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis?

Venereal
Systemic

89

What are the clinical signs of Systemic IBR?

Abortion storm between 4-8 months
+/- Respiratory signs

90

What are the clinical signs of Venereal IBR?

Pustules
Nodules
Ulcers
erosions on vulva and penis

91

How do you diagnose IBR?

Autolysed fetus
foci necrosis in liver and organs of the fetus
Intranuclear inclusion body

92

How do you treat Venereal IBR?

Spontaneously resolve in 1-2 weeks

93

How do you treat/ prevent systemic IBR?

Biosecurity
Vaccination
AI

94

What are the congenital defects seen with BVDV?

Cerebellar hypoplasia
Arthrogryposis
Hypotrichosis

95

How do you diagnose BVDV?

Virus isolation
IHC
PCR

96

What is the gold standard for diagnosing BVDV?

Virus Isolation

97

How do you control BVDV?

Biosecurity
Vaccines

98

What is the transmission of Bluetongue?

Cullicoides

99

Clinical signs of Bluetongue

Abortion
Teratogensis

100

How do you control Bluetongue?

Vaccine

101

Lesions associated with Aspergillus

necrosis of cotyledons and thickening of intercotyledonary space

102

How do you diagnose Aspergillus?

Histopath

103

What Reproductive toxicants cause Abortions?

Locoweed
Nitrates
Ponderosa Pine
Broomweed

104

What Reproductive toxicants cause Infertility?

Locoweed
Fescue
Insecticides

105

What does Poison Hemlock cause?

Crooked Calf Syndrome

106

At what point i gestation does Poison Hemlock cause Crooked Calf Syndrome?

50-75 days gestation

107

What is the toxic principle of Lupines?

Anagyrine
Ammodendrine

108

What deformities does the ingestion of lupines cause?

Severe limb and spinal deformities
Cleft palate

109

At what point i gestation does Lupines cause deformities?

40-70 days

110

What do Lupines do to small ruminants when ingested?

Nothing!

111

What deformities does the ingestion of Tobacco cause?

Arthrogryposis of the forelimbs and curvature of the spine

112

At what point i gestation does Tobacco cause deformities?

50-75 days

113

What is the toxic principle of Locoweed?

Swainsonine

114

What do Locoweeds cause?

Neurologic signs
Abortion
Fetal abnormalities - arthrogryposis/hydrops

115

What is the toxic principle of Ponderosa pine?

Isocupressic acid

116

What does ingestion of ponderosa pine cause?

Vasoconstriction at caruncles
Hemorrhagic placentitis

117

What are the clinical signs of Broomweed or snakeweed?

Abortion
Retained fetal membranes

118

What causes "Summer Slump" in cattle?

Fescue

119

What is the "Summer Slump" in cattle?

Decreased repro/ infertility
Decrease milk

120

What are the nitrate accumulating plants?

Johnson grass
Sudan grass
Wheat
corn
oats

121

What are the clinical signs of Nitrate toxicity?

Fetal hypoxia and death
Late gestation abortions

122

How do you diagnose Nitrate toxicity?

test ocular fluid of aborted fetus

123

Hydroallantois

Abnormal accumulation of allantoic fluid during 5-20 day period of last trimester

124

Hydamnios

Gradual accumulation of excessive amniotic fluid

125

How do you treat Dropsical conditions like Hydroallantois or Hydamnios?

Induce abortion
Slow drainage of fluid over 24 hours

126

How do you induce abortion?

Prostaglandins before 150 days gestation
Corticosteroids to decrease placental source of progesterone after 150 days of gestation

127

What are the indications for induced parturition?

Severe udder edema
Vaginal prolapse
Abnormal pregnancy (hydrops)

128

What can cause parturition in 20-3 days?

Dexamethasone

129

What is the best combination to induce pregnancy within 40 hours?

Dexamethasone
PGF 2 alpha

130

What is the minimum progressive motility for Bullls?

30%

131

What is the minimum morphology for Bulls?

70%

132

What are the four parts of the Bull Breeding Soundness Exam?

Physical Exam
Minimum scrotal circumference based on age
Minimum progressive motility is 30%
Minimum of 70% morphology

133

What are the methods for Semen collection?

Electro-ejaculation
Manual Massage
AV collection

134

How do young bulls get Penile Papilloma?

Homosexual riding among young bulls and it enters via wound

135

What are the clinical signs of Penile Papilloma?

Scant hemorrhage after coitus
hesitancy to extend penis or breed
usually single, pedunculated growth

136

What is the treatment of Penile Papilloma?

Surgical excision

137

What are the complications from Penile papilloma surgical excision?

Recurrence
urethral injury

138

What is the cause of Penile hair rings?

Body hair accumulation on penis due to homosexual riding among young bulls

139

What is the treatment for Penile Hair Rings?

Removal

140

What are the complications of Penile Hair Rings?

Necrosis of urethra leading to a fistula
amputation of glans penis

141

Persistent Frenulum

incomplete separation of penis and prepuce

142

How do you treat Persistent Frenulum?

Surgical excision

143

What are the predisposing factors for Preputial trauma and laceration?

Excessive pendulous sheath
Excessive preputial length
large preputial orifice

144

What is the cause of Preputial laceration?

Excess prepuce forced caudally during intromission
forms collar of tissue
trapped between bull's abdomen and cow's bony penis
Laceration on ventral surface during ejaculatory lunge
lacerates longitudinal to long axis of prepuce
heals transversely as bull retracts penis

145

What is common more in Bos indicus than Bos Taurus?

Preputial prolapse

146

How do you diagnose Preputial laceration?

Ultrasound

147

What is the preputial laceration conservative therapy?

Clean damaged tissues
Emollient ointment -"Petercillin"
Bandaging and slings

148

What is the Pre-surgical therapy for Preputial laceration?

Reduce edema through hydrotherapy, pressure bandage, and slings
"Petercillin"
Prophylactic antibiotics

149

What is the surgical management for Preputial Laceration?

Resection and anastomosis
Amputation of affected prepuce
Preputial reconstruction

150

What is the rule for Resection and Anastomosis of Penis?

Remaining prepuce should be minimum of 1 1/2 times the length of free portion of penis

151

What is the cause of Penile Hematoma?

Bull misses the vagina on breeding thrust
penis hits rear of cow or cow slips or goes down under weight of bull
Penis bends rapidly
ruptures at dorsal aspect of distal bend of sigmoid flexure

152

What are the clinical signs of Penile Hematoma?

Swelling in sheath immediately cranial base of scrotum
usually symmetrical swelling

153

What is the medical treatment for Penile Hematoma?

sexual rest for 60 days
systemic antibiotics
Hydrotherapy

154

What is the surgical therapy for Penile Hematoma?

Surgery between 3-7 days
Heavy sedation
Repair defect in tunica albuginea
Post-operative antibiotics
sexual rest for 60 days

155

Preputial avulsion

prepuce torn from connection to free portion of penis

156

What is the cause of S-shaped deviation of the penis?

Apical ligament is too short

157

What is the cause of Rainbow/Ventral deviation of the penis?

Apical ligament is too long

158

What is the cause of Corkscrew or spiral deviation of the penis?

Apical ligament cannot be maintained in a normal position

159

What is the surgery for Penile deviations?

Surgery

160

What are some causes of Vesiculitis?

B. abortus
A. pyogenes
H. somnus

161

What is the treatment for Vesiculitis?

Tetracyclines

162

What are some causes of Epididymitis?

A. pyogenes
B. abortus

163

What is the treatment for Epididymitis?

Tetracycline