Flashcards in Bovine Repro Deck (163)
When do you see puberty in the bovine?
when heifer reaches 50-60% adult body weight
What influences when a heifer reaches puberty?
Inbreed later onset
Cross-breeds sooner onset
Bos Taurus earlier than Bos indicus
Heifers from bulls large scrotal circumference
What are the stages of the Bovine estrus cycle?
How many days are there in the Metestrus cycle of the Bovine?
How many days are there in the Diestrus cycle of the Bovine?
sexual receptivity of female
What are the signs of Estrus in the bovine?
Final follicular maturation
Formation of CL
Period of CL dominance through luteolysis
Progesterone levels decreasing
Estrogen levels increasing
At what age are heifers bred in the dairy herd?
Voluntary Waiting Period
The period we allow for the uterus to involute and read for pregnancy
How long is the VWP?
60 days to allow the mammary glands to rest before calving to ensure peak lactation after calving
What are the advantages of synchronization?
Reduce the window of time when insemination is appropriate
Reduce the time spent in estrus detection
enhance estrus detection
Allow scheduling of breeding/inseminations
provide for synchrony essential to most embryo transfer programs
What re the general principles of estrus control and synch?
shorten the luteal phase
lengthen the luteal phase
Lutalyse or Estrumate
causes regression of the CL
Estrus displayed in 2-5 days
What is the feed through product that can be used to synchronize cattle?
How does the CIDR work?
extends the Diestrus phase
Why do you use GnRH with the CIDR?
induced a synchronous emergence of a new follicular wave
What should you examine when examining the fetus?
How do you assess that the fetus is alive?
position response to pedal, palpebral, eye ball, mouth, and anal pressure by movement reflex
What does meconium suggest about the calf?
What does fetid odor suggest about the calf?
process by which fetus is restored to deliverable fashion
Pushing the fetus out of maternal pelvis into the uterine cavity to enable correction of abnormality
Turning the fetus on its longitudinal axis
Turning the fetus on its transverse axis into a cranial or caudal presentation
placed into the medial canthus to help turn the head into the right position
used to grab the jaw bone
used for mostly grabbing parts of the calf when you perform a fetotomy
cutting up parts of the calf
Cornell detorsion rod
detorse the calf and uterus
What lube do you use for dystocia?
What happens if you put traction on both forelimbs of the calf simultaneously?
What are the indications for a fetotomy?
Uncorrectable fetal malposition
Delivery by traction not working
Certain fetal monsters/ ankylosis
Incomplete cervical dilation
What type of fetal monsters requires a C-section?
What is the most common fetotomy?
What is included in a fetotomy aftercare?
IV or Oral calcium
Ecbolics: oxytocin or lutalyse
What are the indications for c-section?
Vaginal delivery unsafe for dam or fetus
Most time involves live fetus
Inadequate room to place fetotome
Oversize large fetus
If necessary to save the dam's life
What is heritable in Herefords and Shorthorns?
Grade 1 vaginal prolapse?
floor of vagina protrudes intermittently
Grade 2 vaginal prolapse?
Floor vagina protrudes permanently
Grade 3 vaginal prolapse?
Cervix and most vaginal floor protrude
Grade 4 vaginal prolapse?
2nd or 3rd degrees that has been exposed long enough to cause necrosis/fibrosis
What is the treatment for vaginal prolapse?
Clean with mild antiseptic
debride some necrotic tissue
sugar to reduce edema
What is the prevention for Vaginal prolapse?
Halstead technique/Horizontal mattress
jorvet prolapse kit
What would you use to treat a Grade 4 prolapse?
What predisposes to Uterine Prolapse?
How do you treat Uterine prolapse?
Clean and debride
Position the down animal in sternal and extend hindlimbs caudally
Vulvar retention sutures
What are the sequela of Uterine prolapse?
Uterine artery rupture
Strangulation of other abdominal viscera within prolapse
First degree perineal laceration
only mucosa of vulva or vestibule
How do you treat
First degree perineal laceration?
Second degree perineal laceration
Entire wall of vulva/vestibule and portion of perineal body but not the anus or rectum
Third degree perineal laceration
Entire wall of vagina, perineal body, rectum and anus with common opening for vagina/rectum
How long does uterine involution take?
What are the treatment for Retained Fetal membranes?
Severe inflammation involving all layers of the uterus
Inflammation of the endometrium extending no deeper than the stratum spongiosum
Collection of purulent exudate of variable amount within the endometrial cavity
What is the cause of Pyometra?
persistent corpus luteum
What are the clinical signs of Metritis?
Fetid red-brown watery uterine discharge
How do you treat Metritis?
What is the treatment for Pyometra?
Remove the CL
What is a true anestrus?
insufficient hormonal stimulus
How do you treat true anestrus?
Detect and treat pathology
How do you treat Ovarian Follicular cysts?
Lutenize it/ lyse
Early Embryonic Death
Fetal death less than 8 weeks
Occurs between 42 and 56 days
Fetal death greater than 260 days
Clinical signs of Listeria
Abortion in the last trimester
Sick infected cows before and after abortion
Foci of necrosis in the liver of the fetus
Pinpoint yellow necrotic foci on tips of cotyledonary villi
What are the clinical signs of Leptospirosis?
How do you diagnose Lepto?
Fluorescent Antibody - Fetal kidney or Maternal urine
How do you treat Lepto?
Vaccinate + tetracycline
What are the clinical signs of Brucella?
Intercotyledonary areas may be dry, thickened, cracked
How do you diagnose Brucella?
Isolation of organism
What is important about Brucella?
How do you control Brucella?
What are the clinical signs of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma?
How do you diagnose Campylobacter?
How do you treat Campylobacter?
Cow clears in 3-6 months
How do you control Campylobacter?
use negative bulls
How do you treat Tritrichomonas?
Use only negative bulls
Test and cull bulls
What is the transmission of Neospora?
Ingestion of dog feces
What are the clinical signs of Neospora?
Abortion 3rd trimester - not ill
How do you diagnose Neospora?
IHC on fetal tissue and placenta
How do you prevent and control Neospora?
Dispose carcasses/placentas quickly
Prevent fecal contamination
Select negative heifers
What is the most common cause of viral abortion?
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
What are the different types of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis?
What are the clinical signs of Systemic IBR?
Abortion storm between 4-8 months
+/- Respiratory signs
What are the clinical signs of Venereal IBR?
erosions on vulva and penis
How do you diagnose IBR?
foci necrosis in liver and organs of the fetus
Intranuclear inclusion body
How do you treat Venereal IBR?
Spontaneously resolve in 1-2 weeks
How do you treat/ prevent systemic IBR?
What are the congenital defects seen with BVDV?
How do you diagnose BVDV?
What is the gold standard for diagnosing BVDV?
How do you control BVDV?
What is the transmission of Bluetongue?
Clinical signs of Bluetongue
How do you control Bluetongue?
Lesions associated with Aspergillus
necrosis of cotyledons and thickening of intercotyledonary space
How do you diagnose Aspergillus?
What Reproductive toxicants cause Abortions?
What Reproductive toxicants cause Infertility?
What does Poison Hemlock cause?
Crooked Calf Syndrome
At what point i gestation does Poison Hemlock cause Crooked Calf Syndrome?
50-75 days gestation
What is the toxic principle of Lupines?
What deformities does the ingestion of lupines cause?
Severe limb and spinal deformities
At what point i gestation does Lupines cause deformities?
What do Lupines do to small ruminants when ingested?
What deformities does the ingestion of Tobacco cause?
Arthrogryposis of the forelimbs and curvature of the spine
At what point i gestation does Tobacco cause deformities?
What is the toxic principle of Locoweed?
What do Locoweeds cause?
Fetal abnormalities - arthrogryposis/hydrops
What is the toxic principle of Ponderosa pine?
What does ingestion of ponderosa pine cause?
Vasoconstriction at caruncles
What are the clinical signs of Broomweed or snakeweed?
Retained fetal membranes
What causes "Summer Slump" in cattle?
What is the "Summer Slump" in cattle?
Decreased repro/ infertility
What are the nitrate accumulating plants?
What are the clinical signs of Nitrate toxicity?
Fetal hypoxia and death
Late gestation abortions
How do you diagnose Nitrate toxicity?
test ocular fluid of aborted fetus
Abnormal accumulation of allantoic fluid during 5-20 day period of last trimester
Gradual accumulation of excessive amniotic fluid
How do you treat Dropsical conditions like Hydroallantois or Hydamnios?
Slow drainage of fluid over 24 hours
How do you induce abortion?
Prostaglandins before 150 days gestation
Corticosteroids to decrease placental source of progesterone after 150 days of gestation
What are the indications for induced parturition?
Severe udder edema
Abnormal pregnancy (hydrops)
What can cause parturition in 20-3 days?
What is the best combination to induce pregnancy within 40 hours?
PGF 2 alpha
What is the minimum progressive motility for Bullls?
What is the minimum morphology for Bulls?
What are the four parts of the Bull Breeding Soundness Exam?
Minimum scrotal circumference based on age
Minimum progressive motility is 30%
Minimum of 70% morphology
What are the methods for Semen collection?
How do young bulls get Penile Papilloma?
Homosexual riding among young bulls and it enters via wound
What are the clinical signs of Penile Papilloma?
Scant hemorrhage after coitus
hesitancy to extend penis or breed
usually single, pedunculated growth
What is the treatment of Penile Papilloma?
What are the complications from Penile papilloma surgical excision?
What is the cause of Penile hair rings?
Body hair accumulation on penis due to homosexual riding among young bulls
What is the treatment for Penile Hair Rings?
What are the complications of Penile Hair Rings?
Necrosis of urethra leading to a fistula
amputation of glans penis
incomplete separation of penis and prepuce
How do you treat Persistent Frenulum?
What are the predisposing factors for Preputial trauma and laceration?
Excessive pendulous sheath
Excessive preputial length
large preputial orifice
What is the cause of Preputial laceration?
Excess prepuce forced caudally during intromission
forms collar of tissue
trapped between bull's abdomen and cow's bony penis
Laceration on ventral surface during ejaculatory lunge
lacerates longitudinal to long axis of prepuce
heals transversely as bull retracts penis
What is common more in Bos indicus than Bos Taurus?
How do you diagnose Preputial laceration?
What is the preputial laceration conservative therapy?
Clean damaged tissues
Emollient ointment -"Petercillin"
Bandaging and slings
What is the Pre-surgical therapy for Preputial laceration?
Reduce edema through hydrotherapy, pressure bandage, and slings
What is the surgical management for Preputial Laceration?
Resection and anastomosis
Amputation of affected prepuce
What is the rule for Resection and Anastomosis of Penis?
Remaining prepuce should be minimum of 1 1/2 times the length of free portion of penis
What is the cause of Penile Hematoma?
Bull misses the vagina on breeding thrust
penis hits rear of cow or cow slips or goes down under weight of bull
Penis bends rapidly
ruptures at dorsal aspect of distal bend of sigmoid flexure
What are the clinical signs of Penile Hematoma?
Swelling in sheath immediately cranial base of scrotum
usually symmetrical swelling
What is the medical treatment for Penile Hematoma?
sexual rest for 60 days
What is the surgical therapy for Penile Hematoma?
Surgery between 3-7 days
Repair defect in tunica albuginea
sexual rest for 60 days
prepuce torn from connection to free portion of penis
What is the cause of S-shaped deviation of the penis?
Apical ligament is too short
What is the cause of Rainbow/Ventral deviation of the penis?
Apical ligament is too long
What is the cause of Corkscrew or spiral deviation of the penis?
Apical ligament cannot be maintained in a normal position
What is the surgery for Penile deviations?
What are some causes of Vesiculitis?
What is the treatment for Vesiculitis?
What are some causes of Epididymitis?