Flashcards in Swine Repro Deck (107)
What is the goal of cross breeding for swine repro?
Heterosis or Hybrid vigor
using breeds or lines to take max advantage of their genetic type
How many pigs should be weaned per year?
What is the goal number of Piglets born per year?
What problems with external genitalia should you look for in selecting replacements in pigs?
Dorsally tipped vulva
Mammary gland abnormalities
Small repro tract
Describe Male Pseudohermaphroditism
"Fishhook" or "sky tipped" vulva
What problems with internal genitalia should you look for in selecting replacements in pigs?
Hydrosaplinx or Pyosalpinx
Blind or missing cervix
What is the problem with Hydrosalpinx/Pyosalpinx in pigs?
Adhesions formed that cause obstruction of the oviducts
Describe the Mammary system in replacement sows
Six functional teats on each side
three cranial to umbilicus
At least 10 functional teats
What are some problems with the mammary glands of replacement sows?
What are the factors affecting puberty in pigs?
5-8 months of age
What hastens the onset of puberty in pigs?
Movement/mixing of females
Long days (16-18h)
What delays the onset of puberty in pigs?
most common method used to manipulate puberty
Continuous exposure to a smelly boar beginning at 160-170 days of age
What is the most common method used to manipulate puberty in pigs?
Describe the estrous cycle in pigs
21 day cycle
How long is estrus in Gilts?
How long is estrus in sows?
When does ovulation occur in pigs?
2/3 of the way through estrus
24 hours after LH peak
When is the ovulation rate the largest in the pig?
over the first 3 parities
a farrowing (giving birth)
Signs of Estrus in pigs
Vulva swelling and redness
Restlessness and vocalization
Actively seeking boar
"Pricking" or ears
Lordosis response "back pressure test"
When should you check estrus in pigs?
twice a day
How do you detect estrus in pigs?
Change boars to prevent familiarization
Avoid prolonged exposure to boars
Use a "stink stick" or "Boar mate"
What is the strategy for weaning in pigs?
All in/All out
When does estrus occur post weaning?
How do you induce/ synchronize estrus in non-cycling gilts?
PG600 (PMSG + HCG)
Greater than 165 days of age
What effects does PMSG (Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin) have?
FSH like effects
What effects does HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) have?
LH like effects
What synthetic progestogens can be fed to pigs to induce estrus?
At what point in the cycle are Pigs CL responsive to Lutalyse?
after 12-13 days
When is it best to use Lutalyse in pigs?
between 15-60 days gestation
When will estrus occur after lutalyse is given?
When does Maternal recognition of pregnancy occur?
How does maternal recognition occur?
Redirecting of prostaglandin intra-luminal to be broken down to maintain pregnancy
How can you collect a boar?
Gloved hand method
What are the advantages of Artificial Insemination?
Allows more extensive use of older boars on lighter weight females
Decreases the number of boars and time required for breeding when estrus is synchronized
Promotes development of a close herd
Allows introduction of new genetic material into a herd with minimum risk of disease
What are the disadvantages of Artificial Insemination?
Higher level of management in order for it to be effective
Rise of disease is of greater importance
Increased margin of error
What is the gestation length in pigs?
What is the placentation of pigs?
What is the minimum number of embryos needed for pregnancy maintenance in pigs?
When is skeletal mineralization seen on ultrasound?
When is fetus immunocompetant in pigs?
How long should you wait between piglets before its in trouble?
What do you use to induce parturition in pigs?
How long after administration of Prostaglandins is parturition induced?
What is the medical therapy for Dystocia in pigs?
Oxytocin every 30 minutes
Manual extraction of piglets
C-section in pigs
Vertical incision of left flank
Horizontal incision parallel to underline
What are complications of Parturition?
How do you treat uterine prolapse that is necrotic or torn?
Clinical signs of Vaginal discharge/metritis
Necrotic, malodorous discharge
How do you reduce piglet mortality?
Cross-foster within 24-48 hour post partum
Vaccinate females pre-farrowing
Feed females according to BCS
Cull gilts that savage their piglets
What happens if the entire pregnancy is mummified when greater than 114 days?
pregnancy will progress to pseudopregnancy
Full-term piglets born dead but grossly normal
What is the most common on-infectious cause of infertility in pigs?
What is the second most common cause of infertility in pigs?
Cystic ovarian disease
Cystic ovarian disease
Multiple cysts cause irregular cycles or anestrus
What is the treatment for Cystic ovarian disease in pigs?
Do not respond to hormonal therapy
What causes Cystic ovarian disease in pigs?
Estrus induction agents
What are some Anatomical or congenital abnormalities that cause infertility in pigs?
What are the environmental causes of infertility in pigs?
High ambient temperature
What causes direct disruption of spermatogenesis via localization within the parenchyma causing infertility in pigs?
What causes indirect disruption of spermatogenesis via fever causing infertility in pigs?
What causes shedding in the semen and causes disease in female pigs causing infertility?
Classic swine fever
What bacteria causes infertility in sows?
What virus causes infertility in sows?
Classic swine fever
What are the two ways bacteria are pathogenic in pig reproduction?
Introduced into repro tract
Resulting septicemia can cause loss of pregnancy and subsequent reproductive problems
What is the most common infectious cause of swine infertility?
Clinical signs of Leptospirosis in pigs
Mummified and macerated fetuses
How long does Lepto immunity last after infection?
How do you prevent/treat Leptospirosis in pigs?
vaccinate every 6 months
Clinical signs of Brucella suis
How is Brucella transmitted?
By the Boar
Coitus or ingestion of infected materials
How long can the boar carry Brucella?
Greater than 4 years
Characteristics of Brucella suis
Sows are infected between days 30-40 will abort between days 65-80
Sows shed large numbers of bacteria
What are the lesions for Brucella suis?
Granulomatous lesions in uterus, ovaries, testes, ASG, liver, kidneys
Where is Erysipelothrix carried in pigs without clinical signs?
Clinical signs of Erysipelothrix in pigs
Fever and skin lesions
Abortion secondary to fever and septicemia
How is PRRS transmitted?
Clinical signs of PRRS
Post weaning respiratory disease
decreased average daily gain
How do you diagnose PRRS?
Prevention/Treatment of PRRS
Isolation and acclimation
vaccination with MLV or killed product
What causes SMEDI?
How is Porcine Parvovirus transmitted?
What does Porcine Parvovirus cause?
Fetal vasculitis and death
How do you diagnose Porcine Parvovirus?
Lesions of the aborted fetuses
How do you prevent and treat Porcine Parvovirus?
Proper acclimitization of replacement gilts
What causes Pseudorabies in pigs?
Clinical signs of Pseudorabies in pigs
reduced litter size
CNS signs in young (less than 7 days)
Resp. Signs in weaned pigs and older
How is Pseudorabies transmitted?
How do you diagnose Pseudorabies?
Histological lesions - pulmonary edema, meningioencephalitis
How do you prevent/treat Pseudorabies?
Test and cull
Clinical signs of Hog Cholera
How is Hog Cholera transmitted?
How does Zearalenone cause infertility?
What is Zearalenone?
Zearalenone clinical signs in pigs
exhibit signs of estrus
Enlarged vulva with delayed maturity
Vaginal/ rectal prolapses
reduced testicular development and feminization in prepubertal males
Indirect cause of abortion due to severe reduction in cardiac output in sows
Decreased O2 delivery through the placenta
What does Aflatoxin cause?
Poor piglet growth
toxic to embryos and fetuses
Clinical signs of Carbon Monoxide in pigs?
Cherry red tissues from carboxyhemoglobin
What does Iodine deficiency cause in sows?
What does Ca deficiency cause in sows?
What does Iron deficiency cause in sows?
What does Selenium deficiency cause in sows?
Primary uterine inertia