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RUSVM Theriogenology 2017 > Swine Repro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Swine Repro Deck (107)
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1

What is the goal of cross breeding for swine repro?

Heterosis or Hybrid vigor
using breeds or lines to take max advantage of their genetic type

2

How many pigs should be weaned per year?

19-20

3

What is the goal number of Piglets born per year?

10-12

4

What problems with external genitalia should you look for in selecting replacements in pigs?

Infantalism
Dorsally tipped vulva
Male pseudohermaphroditism
Mammary gland abnormalities

5

Infantalism

Small repro tract

6

Describe Male Pseudohermaphroditism

"Fishhook" or "sky tipped" vulva

7

What problems with internal genitalia should you look for in selecting replacements in pigs?

Hydrosaplinx or Pyosalpinx
Segmental Aplasia
Blind or missing cervix
Oviductal adhesions

8

What is the problem with Hydrosalpinx/Pyosalpinx in pigs?

Adhesions formed that cause obstruction of the oviducts

9

Describe the Mammary system in replacement sows

Six functional teats on each side
three cranial to umbilicus
At least 10 functional teats

10

What are some problems with the mammary glands of replacement sows?

Pin nipples
Blind teats
inverted nipples
Abscesses
injures

11

What are the factors affecting puberty in pigs?

5-8 months of age
200-250lbs
Breed

12

What hastens the onset of puberty in pigs?

Movement/mixing of females
Long days (16-18h)
Boar effect

13

What delays the onset of puberty in pigs?

Confinement housing
Season

14

Boar effect

most common method used to manipulate puberty
Continuous exposure to a smelly boar beginning at 160-170 days of age

15

What is the most common method used to manipulate puberty in pigs?

Boar effect

16

Describe the estrous cycle in pigs

Polyestrous
Non-seasonal
21 day cycle

17

How long is estrus in Gilts?

36-48 hours

18

How long is estrus in sows?

48-72 hours

19

When does ovulation occur in pigs?

2/3 of the way through estrus
24 hours after LH peak

20

When is the ovulation rate the largest in the pig?

over the first 3 parities

21

Parities

a farrowing (giving birth)

22

Signs of Estrus in pigs

Vulva swelling and redness
Vaginal discharge
Restlessness and vocalization
Actively seeking boar
"Pricking" or ears
Lordosis response "back pressure test"

23

When should you check estrus in pigs?

twice a day

24

How do you detect estrus in pigs?

Change boars to prevent familiarization
Avoid prolonged exposure to boars
Avoid ventilation
Use a "stink stick" or "Boar mate"

25

What is the strategy for weaning in pigs?

All in/All out

26

When does estrus occur post weaning?

4-7 days

27

How do you induce/ synchronize estrus in non-cycling gilts?

PG600 (PMSG + HCG)
Greater than 165 days of age

28

What effects does PMSG (Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin) have?

FSH like effects

29

What effects does HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) have?

LH like effects

30

What synthetic progestogens can be fed to pigs to induce estrus?

Altrenogest

31

At what point in the cycle are Pigs CL responsive to Lutalyse?

after 12-13 days

32

When is it best to use Lutalyse in pigs?

between 15-60 days gestation

33

When will estrus occur after lutalyse is given?

4-7 days

34

When does Maternal recognition of pregnancy occur?

day 11-12

35

How does maternal recognition occur?

Estrogenic compounds
Redirecting of prostaglandin intra-luminal to be broken down to maintain pregnancy

36

How can you collect a boar?

Artificial vagina
Electro-ejaculator
Gloved hand method

37

What are the advantages of Artificial Insemination?

Allows more extensive use of older boars on lighter weight females
Decreases the number of boars and time required for breeding when estrus is synchronized
Promotes development of a close herd
Allows introduction of new genetic material into a herd with minimum risk of disease

38

What are the disadvantages of Artificial Insemination?

Higher level of management in order for it to be effective
Rise of disease is of greater importance
Increased margin of error

39

What is the gestation length in pigs?

3 months
3 weeks
3 days

40

What is the placentation of pigs?

Epitheliochorial diffuse

41

What is the minimum number of embryos needed for pregnancy maintenance in pigs?

4 embryos

42

When is skeletal mineralization seen on ultrasound?

day 35

43

When is fetus immunocompetant in pigs?

day 70-75

44

How long should you wait between piglets before its in trouble?

15 minutes

45

What do you use to induce parturition in pigs?

Prostaglandins

46

How long after administration of Prostaglandins is parturition induced?

18-36 hours

47

What is the medical therapy for Dystocia in pigs?

Oxytocin every 30 minutes
Manual extraction of piglets
Calcium

48

C-section in pigs

Vertical incision of left flank
Horizontal incision parallel to underline

49

What are complications of Parturition?

Prolapsed vagina
Prolapsed Uterus
Prolapsed bladder
Vulvar hematoma
Vulvar tears
Vaginal discharge/metritis

50

How do you treat uterine prolapse that is necrotic or torn?

Amputation

51

Clinical signs of Vaginal discharge/metritis

Necrotic, malodorous discharge
Anorectic
febrile

52

How do you reduce piglet mortality?

Supervised farrowing
Cross-foster within 24-48 hour post partum
Vaccinate females pre-farrowing
Feed females according to BCS
Cull gilts that savage their piglets

53

What happens if the entire pregnancy is mummified when greater than 114 days?

pregnancy will progress to pseudopregnancy

54

Stillborn

Full-term piglets born dead but grossly normal

55

What is the most common on-infectious cause of infertility in pigs?

Hydrosalpinx

56

What is the second most common cause of infertility in pigs?

Cystic ovarian disease

57

Cystic ovarian disease

Multiple cysts cause irregular cycles or anestrus

58

What is the treatment for Cystic ovarian disease in pigs?

Do not respond to hormonal therapy

59

What causes Cystic ovarian disease in pigs?

Estrus induction agents

60

What are some Anatomical or congenital abnormalities that cause infertility in pigs?

Segmental aplasia
Uterus unicornium
missing cervix

61

What are the environmental causes of infertility in pigs?

High ambient temperature

62

What causes direct disruption of spermatogenesis via localization within the parenchyma causing infertility in pigs?

Brucella
Chlamydia
Rubulavirus

63

What causes indirect disruption of spermatogenesis via fever causing infertility in pigs?

Systemic illness

64

What causes shedding in the semen and causes disease in female pigs causing infertility?

Classic swine fever
Leptospira
Pseudorabies virus
Parvovirus
PRRS virus

65

What bacteria causes infertility in sows?

Leptospira
Brucella
Erysipelas

66

What virus causes infertility in sows?

PRRS virus
Parvovirus
Pseudorabies virus
Classic swine fever

67

What are the two ways bacteria are pathogenic in pig reproduction?

Introduced into repro tract
Resulting septicemia can cause loss of pregnancy and subsequent reproductive problems

68

What is the most common infectious cause of swine infertility?

Leptospirosis

69

Clinical signs of Leptospirosis in pigs

Mummified and macerated fetuses

70

How long does Lepto immunity last after infection?

1 year

71

How do you prevent/treat Leptospirosis in pigs?

vaccinate every 6 months
Antibiotics: tetracyclines

72

Clinical signs of Brucella suis

Orchitis
Abortions
stillbirths
infertility
pig mortality

73

How is Brucella transmitted?

By the Boar
Coitus or ingestion of infected materials

74

How long can the boar carry Brucella?

Greater than 4 years

75

Characteristics of Brucella suis

Sows are infected between days 30-40 will abort between days 65-80
Sows shed large numbers of bacteria

76

What are the lesions for Brucella suis?

Granulomatous lesions in uterus, ovaries, testes, ASG, liver, kidneys

77

Where is Erysipelothrix carried in pigs without clinical signs?

Tonsils

78

Clinical signs of Erysipelothrix in pigs

Arthritis
Fever and skin lesions
Abortion secondary to fever and septicemia

79

How is PRRS transmitted?

Semen

80

Clinical signs of PRRS

Premature farrowing
Stillbirths/mummies
weak neonates
increased abortion
Post weaning respiratory disease
decreased average daily gain
increased mortality

81

How do you diagnose PRRS?

Virus isolation
Herd serology

82

Prevention/Treatment of PRRS

Symptomatic therapy
Isolation and acclimation
vaccination with MLV or killed product

83

SMEDI

stillbirths
Mummies
Embryonic death
infertility

84

What causes SMEDI?

Porcine Parvovirus

85

How is Porcine Parvovirus transmitted?

Oral
Venereal

86

What does Porcine Parvovirus cause?

Viremia
Fetal vasculitis and death

87

How do you diagnose Porcine Parvovirus?

Lesions of the aborted fetuses
Serology

88

How do you prevent and treat Porcine Parvovirus?

Proper acclimitization of replacement gilts
Vaccination

89

What causes Pseudorabies in pigs?

Herpes virus

90

Clinical signs of Pseudorabies in pigs

encephalitis
repro failure
reduced litter size
CNS signs in young (less than 7 days)
Resp. Signs in weaned pigs and older
Fever
Anorexia
weight loss
Resorption
Abortion
Increased mummies
Stillbirths

91

How is Pseudorabies transmitted?

Semen
Fecal oral
Aerosol
Contact

92

How do you diagnose Pseudorabies?

Histological lesions - pulmonary edema, meningioencephalitis
Virus isolation
serology

93

How do you prevent/treat Pseudorabies?

Eradication
Test and cull
Vaccination

94

Clinical signs of Hog Cholera

Anorexia
Cyanosis
fever
diarrhea
vomiting
abortions

95

How is Hog Cholera transmitted?

Semen

96

How does Zearalenone cause infertility?

implantation failure

97

What is Zearalenone?

Mycotoxin

98

Zearalenone clinical signs in pigs

exhibit signs of estrus
Mammary development
vaginal discharge
Enlarged vulva with delayed maturity
Vaginal/ rectal prolapses
reduced testicular development and feminization in prepubertal males

99

Fumonison

Indirect cause of abortion due to severe reduction in cardiac output in sows
Decreased O2 delivery through the placenta

100

What does Aflatoxin cause?

Poor piglet growth

101

Trichotecene toxin

toxic to embryos and fetuses

102

Clinical signs of Carbon Monoxide in pigs?

Cherry red tissues from carboxyhemoglobin
Late-term abortions

103

What does Iodine deficiency cause in sows?

Increased stillbirths

104

What does Ca deficiency cause in sows?

Farrowing difficulty

105

What does Iron deficiency cause in sows?

Piglet anemia
stillbirths

106

What does Selenium deficiency cause in sows?

MMA
Primary uterine inertia

107

WEI

Weaning to Estrus Interval