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Gastrointestinal - Pathology > Esophageal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Esophageal Deck (16):
1

What is the most common esophageal congenital abnormality?

Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula

2

What five things are associated with Plummer-Vinson syndrome?

Esophageal web
Iron deficiency anemia
Glossitis
Oral leukoplakia
Spoon nails

3

What is the difference between esophageal mucosal webs and schatzki rings?

Rings are like webs but thicker and circumfrential

4

What is a Zenker's diverticulum?

In upper esophageal sphincter, is an outpouch of mucosa and submucosa through weakened posterior cricopharyngeus muscle

5

What is achalasia?

Inability for LES to relax fully, results in aperistalsis of esophagus

6

What is the cause of primary achalasia?

Degeneration of ganglion cells in esophageal wall myenteric plexus

7

What are causes of secondary achalasia?

Chagas disease, malignancy, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis

8

What is the result of severe retching or vomiting and severe hematemesis?

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

9

What is Boerhaave syndrome?

Rupture of distal esophagus with pneumomediastinum

10

What are the two types of hiatal hernia?

Sliding and paraesophageal hiatal hernia

11

What can cause non-reflux esophagitis?

Candida, herpes, CMV (immunocompromised)
Corrosive agent ingestion (lye)
Pill getting stuck
GVHD
Crohn's

12

What problems often arise from Barrett's esophagus?

Esophageal glandular dysplasia
Adenocarcinoma

13

What molecular marker is oftentimes increased in adenocarcinoma?

EGFR

14

What are common symptoms of adenocarcinoma?

Painful swallowing, hematemesis, chest pain, progressive weight loss

15

What can cause esophageal squamous cell carcinoma?

Alcohol/tobacco, caustic injury, achalasia, tylosis, plummer-vinson, hot beverages

16

Where are most esophageal SCC's found?

middle third of esophagus