Small and Large Bowel III Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal - Pathology > Small and Large Bowel III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Small and Large Bowel III Deck (36):
1

What is the morphology of an inflammatory polyp?

Inflamed and regenerating mucosa that projects above the level of surrounding mucosa which is also ulcerated

2

What syndromes can cause inflammatory polyps? Where do they occur?

Caused by solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and crohn's disease
Occurs anywhere in GI tract

3

What are the two ways juvenile (retention) polyps can generate?

Sporadically or as a result of polyposis syndrome

4

When retention polyps arise from polyposis syndrome, what is the individual at an increased risk of developing?

Adenocarcinoma

5

What is the microscopic morphology of a juvenile retention polyp? Gross morphology?

Microscopic: Multiple dilated, mucin filled crypts.
Gross: Usually rounded, smooth, unilobular with erythematous cap

6

What is the presentation of Peutz-Jeghers polyps?

In childhood with GI bleed and intussusception

7

What is mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome?

Tumor suppressor gene STK11

8

What is the microscopic morphology of PJ polyps?

Hyperpigmentation
Smooth muscle arborizing pattern

9

What region is common to see lesions in PJS?

Oral

10

What is the clinical presentation of a hyperplastic polyp?

Single or multiple
Mostly in left colon
No worry of cancer progression

11

What is the microscopic morphology of hyperplastic polyps?

Serration of midportion of individual glands

12

If in the small bowel, where do adenomatous polyps most often present?

Duodenum

13

Where do adenomatous polyps mostly occur?

Colon

14

What are the two common morphologies for adenomatous polyps?

Sessile (attachment with flat base)
Pedunculated polyp

15

Where do sessile serrated adenomas most often present?

Right colon

16

What do sessile serrated adenomas turn into?

Adenocarcinoma

17

What is the gross appearance of sessile serrated adenomas?

Lacks adenomatous epithelium of regular adenomas
Flat

18

What is important about crypt morphology in sessile serrated adenomas?

Dilation of crypts

19

What is the inheritance pattern of FAP?

Autosomal dominant

20

What is mutated in Lynch syndrome?

MMR

21

What happens to DNA with MMR mutation?

Accumulation of mutations in microsatellite DNA

22

What is Gardner's syndrome?

Desmoid tumors, dental abnormalities, thyroid tumors, osteomas, and epidermal cysts in addition to FAP

23

What is Turcot syndrome?

Hereditary colon cancer syndrome along with CNS tumors

24

Which side does MMR tend to show up on?

Right

25

What is the clinical presentation of left sided tumors?

LLQ disomfort
Occult bleeding
Bowel habit changes
Cramping

26

What is the clinical presentation of right sided tumors?

Fatigue and weakness due to iron deficiency anemia

27

What is important about finding out the KRAS mutation?

If KRAS mutaiton, Cetuximab is not as effective

28

What are risk factors for small bowel adenocarcinoma?

FAP
Crohn's
Celiac disease

29

What do nonfunctioning GI tract Neuroendocrine tumors present as?

Vague
Abdominal pain
Nausea, vomiting
Weight loss

30

What GI cancer can result in Zollinger ellingson syndrome?

Functioning neuroendocrine tumors

31

What is described as pigmentation of mucosa due to certain laxatives?

Melanosis coli

32

What can MALT lymphoma turn into?

lymphomatous polyposis

33

What is the morphological findings for acute appendicitis?

Supperative inflammation with gangrenous necrosis

34

How does acute pancreatitis present?

Periumbilical pain that localizes to RLQ

35

What are the best diagnostic tests for acute appendicitis?

Ultrasound and CT

36

What complications can come from acute appendicitis?

Periappendiceal abscess
Pyelophlebitis
Portal venous thrombosis
Bacteremia, sepsis