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Flashcards in Ethics in Health Care Deck (47):
1

Discipline that examines one's moral standards or standards of society

Ethics

2

Standards that one has about what is right and wrong, good or bad

Morality

3

Not established or changed by decision of particular authoritative bodies; preferred to other values; impartial

Moral standards

4

Who formulated the Stages of Theory of Moral Reasoning?

Lance Kohlberg

5

What was the dilemma presented in the Theory of Moral Reasoning?

Heinz Dilemma

6

Focus of pre-conventional stage

Me

7

Focus of conventional stage

Others, group

8

Focus of post-conventional stage

Global perspective

9

Respecting others and the rules that are needed for the good of all

Law and Order

10

Please others and earn their approval

Interpersonal Concordance

11

Feeling a sense of empathy

Individualism and Exchange

12

First stage in the Theory of Moral Reasoning

Reward and Punishment

13

Where ethical reasoning happens

Post-conventional stage

14

A commitment to the universal principles

Universal Principles

15

Universal principles (3)

Equality for all, social justice, respect for human dignity

16

Recognizes that all values and norms are relative, and that there are fair ways for reaching a consensus

Social contract and individual rights

17

Who came up with the Anatomy of an Ethical Decision?

Manuel Velasquez

18

What is the Anatomy of an Ethical Decision (5)

Moral standards > Gather information > Moral judgment > Choose a course of action > Communicate Well

19

Benefits and costs in consideration of the bigger group; greatest happiness for the greatest number of people

Utilitarianism

20

Also known as the Categorical Imperative framework

Kantian Ethics

21

It can be safely prescribed as a law for everyone

Categorical Imperative

22

The 2 Principles of Kantian Ethics

Universality, Reversability

23

Golden Rule: "What if everybody did that?"

Reversability

24

Applied to anybody because they will agree with it

Universality

25

Also known as the ethics of duty and rationality

Kantian Ethics

26

Characteristics which make a person the best he/she could be

Virtue

27

An action is right if it is what a virtuous person would do

Virtue Ethics

28

Proponents of Virtue Ethics

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

29

Self actualization will bring about _____________

Authentic happiness (eudaimonia)

30

Emphasis on what can be done to produce the sort of character that instinctively does the right thing to do (habit, journey)

Virtue Ethics

31

Communitarian Ethics

Ethics of Care

32

Proponent of the Ethics of Care

Carol Gilligan

33

True or False: Ethics of Care forces us to focus on the moral value of being impartial

False

34

Recognition of the existence of a supernatural being, whose existence is a fact

Christian Ethics

35

Self actualization is not an end of Christian Ethics, but is a ___________.

By-product

36

Who was the proponent of the Hedonic Calculus?

Benham

37

What are the variables measured to calculate utility?

Intensity
Fecundity
Proximity
Purity
Certainty
Duration

38

What are the four principles of ethics?

Non-maleficence
Beneficence
Respect for autonomy
Justice

39

Requires intentionality regarding actions that can cause or risk harm

Non-maleficence

40

Puts premium on benefits and happiness

Beneficence

41

Acting in such a way that enables another person to act fully in accordance with self-chosen plan

Respect for autonomy

42

Autonomy is present if person has

Liberty, agency

43

Ought to give what is due a person

Justice

44

Angeles Model of Ethical Reasoning (7)

Gather information
Identify stakeholders
Articulate dilemma
Look at alternatives
Weigh values
Determine consequences
Make a decision

45

Matrix of comparing values

Values upheld
Values compromised
Alternatives
Consequences

46

Litmus test in making decision

Publicity
Legality
Time

47

UNESCO Model of Ethical Decision Making

Fact Deliberation
Value Deliberation
Duty Deliberation
Consistency test
Final Decision