EUKARYOTIC CELLS AND ORGANELLES Flashcards Preview

BIOLOGY - CELL STRUCTURE AND DIVISION > EUKARYOTIC CELLS AND ORGANELLES > Flashcards

Flashcards in EUKARYOTIC CELLS AND ORGANELLES Deck (86)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the ultrastructure of the cell

the internal structure of the cell that suits it for its job

2

What organelles are found within eukaryotic cells (11)

1) nucleus
2) mitochondria
3) chloroplast
4) endoplasmic reticulum
5) golgi apparatus
6) lysosomes
7) ribosomes
8) cell wall
9) vacuole
10) golgi vesicle
11) cell vacuole

3

What organisms are eukaryotic cells found in

animals, plants, fungi, algae

4

What organelle are found in animal cells (11 points)

1) plasma membrane
2) rough endoplasmic reticulum
3) nucleous
4) nucleus
5) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
6) lysosome
7) ribosome
8) golgi apparatus
9) cytoplam
10) nuclear envolope
11) mitochondria

5

What do plant cells have that animal cells dont

1) cellulose cell wall
2)plasmodesmata
3) vacuole
4) chloroplasts

6

What cells do algae cells have the same organelle as

plants

7

What are the differences between plant cells and fungal cells (2 points)

1) cell walls are made chitin
2) don't have chloroplasys as they dont photosynthesise

8

What does the nucleus do

contains the organisms hereditary material & controls the cells activities

9

What 5 parts does the nucleus contain

1) nuclear envolope
2) nuclear pores
3) nucleoplasm
4) chromosomes
5) nucleolus

10

What is the nuclear envelope

double membrane that surrounds the nucleous

11

What does the nuclear envelope do

controls the entry and exit of materials in and out of the nucleus, contains the reactions taking place within

12

What do the nuclear pores allow

the passage of large molecules such as mRNA out of the nucleus

13

What is the nucleoplasm

granular, jelly-like material that makes up the bulk of the nucleus

14

What do chromosomes consist of

protein-bound linear DNA

15

What is the nucleolus

small spherical region within the nucleoplasm

16

What does the nucleolus do

manufactures ribosomal RNA and assembles the ribosomes

17

Is there more than 1 nucleolus in the nucleus

yes

18

What are the 3 functions of the nucleus

1) act as the control centre of the cell through production of mRNA and tRNA (so protein synthesis)
2) retain the genetic material of the cell in the form of DNA and chromosomes
3) manufacture ribosomal RNA and ribosomes

19

What is the average size of the nucleus

10-20 um

20

What is the usual shape of mitochondria

rod-shaped

21

What is the average size of mitochondria

1-10 um

22

What structures are mitochondria made up of (3 points)

1) double membrane
2) cristae
3) matrix

23

What does the double membrane of the mitochondria control

the entry and exit of material

24

What does the inner of the membranes of the double membrane fold to make

extensions called cristae

25

What are cristae

extensions of the inner membrane

26

What does the cristae do

provide a large surface area for the attachment of enxymes and other proteins involved in respirations

27

What does the matrix contain (4 points)

1) protein
2) lipids
3) ribosomes
4) DNA
5) enzymes involved in respiration

28

What does the matrix allow for the control of

production of some of their own proteins

29

What is the function of mitochondria

the sites of respiration

30

What molecule does mitochondria require & produce lots of

ATP

31

What are chloroplasts function

the organelles that carry out photosynthesis

32

What shape are chloroplasts usually

sphere

33

What are the main features of chloroplasts (3)

1) chloroplast envelope
2) grana
3) stroma

34

What is the chloroplast envelope structure

double membrane

35

What is the chloroplast envelope highly selective about

what enters and leaves the chloroplast

36

What are the grana composed of

stacks of disc-like structures called thylakoids

37

What can be found within the thylakoids

chorophyll

38

What is chrolophyll

photosynthetuc pigment

39

What occurs within the grana

the first stage of photosynthesis (light absorbtion)

40

What is the stroma

fluid-filled matrix

41

What occurs within the stroma

the second stage of photosynthesis (synthesis of sugars)

42

How are chloroplast adapted to their function (3 points)

1) granal membranes provide a large SA: V ratio for the attachment of chlorophyll, electron carriers & enzymes
2) fluid of the stroma possesses all the enzymes needed to make sugars in second stage of photosynthesis
3) chloroplasts contain both DNA & ribosomes so they can quickly and easily manufacture proteins needed for photosynthesis

43

How are grana linked to other grana

lamellae

44

What are lamellae

thing, flat pieces of thylakoid membrane

45

What is the singular for grana

granum

46

What is the endoplasmic reticulum structure

system of sheet-like membranes

47

What does the endoplasmic reticulum membranes enclose

cisternae

48

What are cisternae

network of tubules and flattened sacs

49

What are the 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum

1) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
2) rough endoplasmic reticulum

50

What does the rough endoplasmic reticulum have present on the outer surface

ribosomes

51

What are the 2 functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

1) provide a large surface area for the synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins
2) provide a pathway for the transport of materials (especially proteins) throughout cell

52

What is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum more in appearance

tubular

53

What does the smooth endoplasmic reticulum lack on the outer surface

ribosomes

54

What are the 2 functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

1) synthesise, store and transport lipids
2) synthesise, store and transport carbohydrates

55

Which cells have a lot of ER

liver and secretory

56

What is the golgi apparatus structure

conposed of a stack of membranes that make up cristernae with small rounded hollow structures called vesicles

57

What does the golgi apparatus function (5)

1) add carbohydrate to proteins to form glycoproteins
2) produce secretory enzymes such as those secreted by the pancreas
3) secrete carbohydrates such as those used in making cell walls in plants
4) transport, modify and store lipids
5) form lysosomes

58

When are lysosomes formed

when the vesicles produced by the golgi apparatis contain enzymes such as proteases and lipases

59

What are the functions of lysosomes (4)

1) hydrolyse material ingested by phagocytic cells (e.g white blood cells and bacteria)
2) release enzymes to outside of cell to destroy material around the cell
3) digest worn out organelles so the useful chemicals they are made out of can be re-used
4) completely break down cells after they have died

60

What is the release of enzymes to the outside of the cell called

exocytosis

61

What is the breakdown of cells after they have died called

autolysis

62

What cells are abundant in lysosomes

epithelial and phagocytic cells

63

What enzymes lysosomes contain

digestive enzymes called lysozymes

64

What organelle does the golgi apparatus produce

golgi vesicle

65

What is the function of the golgi vesicle

store lipids and proteins produced by the golgi apparatus and transport them out of the cell

66

How many types of ribosome are there

2

67

What are the type of ribosomes

1) 80S
2) 70S

68

Where are 80S ribosomes found

in eukaryotic

69

Where are 70S ribosomes found

in prokaryotic cells, mitochondria and chloroplast

70

Which is the larger type of ribosome

80S

71

What does the ribosomes contain

ribosomal RNA and protein

72

What is the function of ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

73

What is the cell wall composed of

microfibrils of the polysaccharide cellulose embedded into a matrix

74

What makes the cell wall strong

the microfibrils of the cellulose

75

What are the 2 features of the cell wall

1) consist of a number of polysaccharides
2) thin layer called the middle lamella

76

What does the thin lamella mark

the boundary between adjacent cell walls and cements adjacent cells together

77

What is the function of the cellulose cell wall (3 points)

1) provide structural support to stop the cell bursting under pressure of osmotic entry of water
2) give structural to the plant as a whole
3) allow water to pass along it and so contribute to the movement of water through the plant

78

What are the cell walls of algae made up of

cellulose of glycoprotein ( or mixture)

79

What are the cell walls of fungi made up of

mixture of chitin and glycan & glycoproteins

80

What is chitin

nitrogen-containing polysaccharide

81

What is the vacuole structure

fluid-filled sac bounded by a single membrane

82

What is the single membrane surrounding the sac in a vacuole known as

tonoplast

83

What are the functions of the vacuole (3 points)

1) support herbacceous plants & herbacceous parts of woody plants by making cells turgid
2) sugars and amino acids may act as a temporary food store
3) pigments may colour petals to attract pollinating insects

84

What does the vacuole contain

cell sap

85

What is cell sap

a weak sollution of sugar and solds

86

How does the vacuole keep the cell turgid

maintains the pressure within the cell