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Flashcards in MITOSIS Deck (31)
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1

What are the 2 methods of cell division

mitosis
meiosis

2

What is the basic outline of mitosis

2 daugher cells produced that each have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell

3

What is the basic outline of meiosis

4 daughter cells produced that eahc have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell

4

What are the 5 stages of mitosis in order

1) prophase
2) metaphase
3) anaphase
4) telophase

5

What is mitosis needed for

the growth of multicellular organisms and for repairing damaged tissues

6

What is in the cell cycle

interphase (Gap phase 1, synthesis, Gap phase 2) -> mitosis

7

What happens during Gap phase 1

cell grows and new organelles & proteins are made

8

What happens during synthesis

cell replicates its DNA so that its ready to divide by mitosis

9

When is the genes of the 2 daughter cells different to the parent cells

when a mutation occurs

10

What 3 things occur during interphase

1) DNA is unravelled and replicated
2) organelles are replicated
3) ATP content is doubled

11

Why is the ATP content doubled during interphase

ATP provides the energy needed for cell division

12

What occurs during prophase (4 points)

1) chromosomes become visible as long thin threads and change to shorter and fatter
2) centrioles (only found in animals) move to opposite ends
3) spindle fibres develop from each centriole to form spindle apparatus
4) nuclear envelope breaks down so chromosomes are left free in the cutoplasm, drawn towards the equator of the cell

13

What occurs during metaphase (2 points)

1) chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell
2) spindle fibres attach to the centromere

14

What is the centromere

where chromatids are joined

15

What are chromatids

what chromosomes are made up of

16

How many strands of chromatids in a chromosome

2

17

What occurs during anaphase (2 points)

1) centromeres divide into 2
2) spindle fibres contract, so pull the individual chromatids in the chromosome apart and towards the opposite poles of the spindle

18

What shape do the chromatids appear during anaphase

v-shaped

19

Where is the energy for anaphase provided from and where do they gather

mitochondria , gather around the spindle fibres

20

What occurs during telophase

1) chromatids reach the opposite poles on the spindle
2) chromatids become longer and thinner before disappearing
3) spindle fibres disintegrate
4) nuclear envelope and nucleolus re-form
5) cytokinesis

21

What is cytokinesis

cytoplasm divides to form 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical

22

What are the 3 functions of mitosis

1) growth
2) repair
3) reproduction

23

What is cancer the result of

uncontrolled cell division due to a gene mutation

24

What is mitosis and cell division controlled by

genes

25

What are some treatments of cancer designed to control and how

the rate of cell division by disrupting the cell cycle

26

What are the 2 main stages that cancer treatments target

G1 and S phase

27

What drugs target G1 phase

chemical drugs

28

What drugs target the S phase

radiation and some drugs

29

How do chemical drugs target the G1 phase

prevent the synthesis of enzmes

30

How does radiation & some drugs target the S phase

damages DNA which is detected, and the cell will kill itself