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Flashcards in VACCINATION Deck (47)
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1

What is immunity

the ability of an organism to resist infection

2

What 2 forms can immunity take

passive or active

3

What is passive immunity

immunity that doesn't require direct contact with the pathogen or its antigen

4

How is passive immunity produced

introduction of antibodies into individuals from an outside source

5

Is the lasting immunity with passive immunity and why

no, because the antibodies are not produced by the individual so the antibodies are not replaced when broken down & no memory cells are formed

6

What are 2 examples of passive immunity

anti-venom, immunity acquireed by the fetus when antibodies pass across placenta

7

What are the 2 forms of passive immunity

natural, artificial

8

What is natural passive immunity

when a baby becomes immune through antibodies recieved from mother via placenta and breast milk

9

What is artificial passive immunity

when you become immune after being injected with antibodies from someone else

10

What is active immunity

immunity you get when your immune system makes its own antibodies after being stimulated by an antigen

11

How is active immunity produced

stimulating the production of antibodies by the individuals own immune system

12

What is necessary for active immunity

direct contact with the pathogen or its antigen

13

Is active immunity long lasting

yes generally

14

What are the 2 types of active immunity

artificial and natural

15

What is natural active immunity

when an individual becomes infected with a disease under normal circumsances and the body produces its own antibodies

16

What is artificial active immunity

when an individual becomes immune to a disease through being given a vaccination to trigger a response by the immune system but the individual does not suffer symptoms

17

What is vaccination

the introduction of the appropriate disease antigens into the body via either injection or mouth

18

What do vaccinations contain

antigens that are either free or attached to a dead/attenuated pathogen

19

What does a vaccination lead to the production of

memory cells

20

How much antigen is there in each vaccination and why

small amount, only small amount needed to trigger immune response & create memory cells, so saves money

21

What is the material introduced within a vaccination called

vaccine

22

What is herd immunity

when a sufficiently large proportion of the population has been vaccinated in order to make it difficult for the pathogen to spread

23

What does attenuated mean

weakened

24

What are the 2 methods of taking vaccinations

1) orally
2) injected

25

What is a disadvantage of taking a vaccination orally

could be broken down by enzymes in the gut, ot the molecules of th evaccine could be too large to be absorbed into the blood

26

Why are booster vaccines sometimes given

to ensure that memory cells are produced

27

What is a vaccination used as

precautionary measure to prevent individuals contracting a disease

28

What is a vaccination not used as

a cure for someone that already has the disease

29

What does the success of a vaccination programme depend on (5 points)

1) suitable vaccine must be economically available in sufficient quantities
2) must be few side-effects, if any
3) means of producing, storing and transporting the vaccine must be available (hygenic conditions & refrigerated transport)
4) must be means of administering the vaccine properly at the appropriate time (staff must be trained with appropriate skills)
5) must be possible to vaccinate the vast majority of the vulnerable population to produce herd immunity

30

Why must the vaccine be economically available in sufficient quantities to ensure the success of a vaccination

to immunise most of the vulnerable population