PROKARYOTIC CELLS AND VIRUSES Flashcards Preview

BIOLOGY - CELL STRUCTURE AND DIVISION > PROKARYOTIC CELLS AND VIRUSES > Flashcards

Flashcards in PROKARYOTIC CELLS AND VIRUSES Deck (39)
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1

What are the 2 main types of cells

1) eukaryotic
2) prokaryotic

2

What organelle do prokaryotic cells lack

nucleus & nuclear envelope

3

What is an example of a prokaryotic cell

bacteria

4

What organelle do bacteria contain (5 points)

1) cell wall
2) capsule
3) cell surface membrane
4) circular DNA
5) plasmid

5

What organelle can prokaryotics contain

1) cytpolasm
2) plasma membrane
3) cell wall
4) capsule
5) plasmid
6) circular DNA
7) flagellum

6

What is the role of the cell wall

physcial barrier that excludes certain substances and protects against mechanical damage & osmotic lysis

7

What is the capsule made up of

secreted sline

8

What is the role of the capsule

protects from other cells and helps groups of bacteria to stick together for further protection

9

What is the cell wall made up of

murein

10

What is murein

glycoprotein

11

What is a glycoprotein

a protein with a carbohydrate attached

12

What is the role of the cell-surface (plasma) membrane

acts as a differentially permeabole layer which controls the entry and exit of chemicals

13

What is the plasma membrane made up of

lipids and proteins

14

What is the role of the circular DNA

possesses the genetic information for the replication of bacterial cells

15

What is a plasmid

small loop of DNA that aren't part of the main circular DNA molecule

16

What do the plasmids contain

genes for things such as antibiotic resistance

17

Are plasmids always present in prokaryotic cells

no

18

Are prokaryotics limited to just one plasmid

no

19

What is a flagellum

long, hair-like structure

20

What is the role of the flagellum

for locomotion (to rotate to make the cell move)

21

Are flagellum always present in prokaryotic cells

no

22

Are prokaryotes limited to just one flagellum

no

23

What does the cytoplasm contain

no membrane-bound organelle, only 70S ribosomes

24

What part of prokaryotes are used as vectors in genetic engineering

plasmids

25

What are vectors

carriers of genetic information

26

What are virsuses

acellular, non-living particles of nucleic acids surrounded by protein

27

Are viruses or bacteria smaller

viruses

28

What do viruses contain and give examples

nucleic acids such DNA/RNA

29

When can viruses duplicate

inside living host cells

30

What is the nucleic acid within a virus contained in

capsid

31

What is a capsid

protein coat that contains the nucleic acid

32

What are some viruses further enclosed by and give and example of a virus that is

a lipid envelope, human immunodeficiency virus

33

What is present if a lipid envelope is not present

attachment proteins

34

What are attachment proteins vital for

allowing the virus to identify and attach to a host cell

35

How do prokaryotic cells replicate

binary fission

36

What occurs during binary fission

they cell replicates its genetic material before splitting into 2 daughter cells

37

What is the process of binary fission (4 points)

1) circular DNA and plasmids replicate - main DNA loop only repeated once but plasmids can be repeated lots
2) cell gets bigger and the DNA loops move to opposite poles of the cell
3) cytoplasm beginds to divide and new cell walls begin to form
4) cytoplasm divides into 2 daughter cells that each have 1 copy of circular DNA & various number of plasmids

38

What do virsus use replicate themselves

attacgment proteins to bind to complementary receptor protein on host cells

39

How do viruses replicate themselves

inject their DNA or RNA into the host cell to cause the cells machinery to replicate the viruses particles