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Hematology Module 1 and 2 > Evaluation of Erythrocytes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Evaluation of Erythrocytes Deck (61):
1

What is the male and female reference value for RBCs?

4-6 Million/Cumm

2

What is the male and female reference value for Retics?

.5 to 1.5%

3

What is the male and female reference value for Hemoglobin?

Male: 16 +/- 2 or 14-18 g/dL
Female: 14 +/- 2 or 12-16 g/dL

4

What is the male and female reference value for Microhematocrit?

Male: 42-54%
Female: 36-48%

5

What is the male and female reference value for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)?

Male: 0-20mm
Female: 0-15mm

6

What is the formula for manual RBC count and VF? What are the dimensions of the whole square field and 25 inside one square?

# of cells * Dilution Factor * Volume Factor = RBC count
VF = Length * Width * Depth
1 square = 1x1mm
1 of 25 inside = .2x.2mm
Depth = .1mm always

7

What type of stain is used in retic counts?

Supervital Stain

8

What are two common supervital stains?

New Methylene Blue
Brilliant Cresyl Blue

9

What form of hemoglobin cannot be measure by cyanmethemoglobin method?

Sulfhemoglobin

10

What are the 4 causes for elevated hemoglobin measurements?

1.) High WBC Count (>200,000)
2.) High Platelet Count (>700,000)
3.) Lipemia
4.) RBCs resistant to lysis

11

What is the rule of 3?

RBC * 3 ~ HGB
HGB * 3 = HCT +/- 3

12

What are the causes for hemoglobin and hematocrit not matching?

1.) High WBC
2.) High Platelets
3.) Lipemia
4.) Poik

13

How does under-centrifugation affect microhematocrit?

Increases

14

How does a decrease in blood volume (short draw) affect microhematocrit?

Decreases

15

How does a EDTA blood tube sitting out overnight at room temperature affect microhematocrit?

Increases

16

How does including the buffy coat affect microhematocrit?

Increases

17

What are the three stages and time lengths of Etythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR).

1.) Rouleaux ~ 10 min
2.) Rapid Fall ~ 40 min
3.) Packing ~ 10 min

18

What plasma protein has the greatest impact on ESR?

Fibrinogen

19

How does placement next to a centrifuge affect ESR reading?

Increases

20

How does a decrease in blood volume (short draw) affect ESR reading?

Decreases

21

How does a EDTA blood tube sitting out overnight at room temperature affect ESR reading?

Decreases

22

How does the tube not being perpendicular affect ESR reading?

Increases

23

What is the formula and normal ranges for MCV?

HCT*10 / RBC
80-100 fL

24

What is the formula and normal ranges for MCH?

HGB*10 / RBC
27-31 pg

25

What is the formula and normal ranges for MCHC?

HGB*100 / HCT
32-36%

26

What is the normal ranges for RDW?

11.5-14.5%

27

How is a small lymphocyte used to determine the size of a red blood cell?

Red blood cells are the size of the nucleus of the lymph or 2/3 the whole lymph.

28

Describe anisocytosis

Varying sizes

29

Describe poikilocytosis

Varying morphologies

30

Describe hypochromia

less color

31

Describe polychromasia

Many colors

32

Describe microcytosis

Smaller

33

Describe Macrocytosis

Larger

34

Describe Acanthocytes and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Cell fragments "Spur Cells"
Abetalipoproteinemia

35

Describe Blister cells and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Have a blister, and condition with inclusion bodies and a healthy spleen

36

Describe Burr cells and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Uniform, and evenly spaced bumps on edge, Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

37

Describe crenation and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Crumbled, always a drying artifact, may be electrolyte imbalance.

38

Describe elliptocytes cells and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

elongated cigar shaped, Hereditary elliptocytosis

39

Describe Hemoglobin C crystals and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Bars of gold, Homozygous C disease

40

Describe Hemoglobin S-C crystals and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Glove or mitten, Jut out of cell, hemoglobin SC disease

41

Describe Macrocytes and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

large Round cells, liver disease or Reticulocytosis

42

Describe macro ovalocytes and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

oval shaped, megaloblastic anemia (B12 and folate deficiency)

43

Describe autoagglutination and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

clumped cells, autoimmune hemolytic anemias

44

Describe Rouleaux and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Coining up, Multiple myeloma

45

Describe Schistocytes and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

cell fragments, Burn patients DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)

46

Describe sickle cells and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Crescent/moon shaped, Sickle cell anemia

47

Describe Spherocytes and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Round and no central pallor, hereditary spherocytosis

48

Describe stomatocytes and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Mouth shaped, Rh Null disease(defect in Na/K pump)

49

Describe target cells and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

target, hemoglobinapathies, Thalassemias

50

Describe teardrop cells and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Teardrop, Tumor in bone marrow

51

Describe mixed cell population and the prominent disorder it is associated with.

Mixed, Transfusion or Sideroblastic anemia

52

Describe the morphology, state the composition of, and diseases associated basophilic stippling.

Evenly spread out, no clumps; RNA, Thalassemia

53

Describe the morphology, state the composition of, and diseases associated Howell-Jolly bodies.

Very Round point, DNA remnants, Sickle Cell Anemia or Megaloblastic anemia

54

Describe the morphology, state the composition of, and diseases associated pappenhemier bodies.

Granules, basophilic RNA, non-heme iorn

55

Describe the morphology, state the composition of, and diseases associated with Heinz bodies.

Only seen on supervital stain, external clumps, ppt. HGB, Thalassemia and G-6-PD deficiency

56

Describe the morphology, state the composition of, and diseases associated with Cabot rings.

Very faint spindle looking remnants, mitotic spindle remant, pernicious anemia or lead poisoning

57

Describe the morphology, state the composition of, and diseases associated with plasmodium (malarial parasites).

Very faint ring/halo with dots

58

Define Siderotic granules.

Contain iron

59

Define RPI.

Reticulocyte Production index

60

Define RDW

Red Cell Distribution Width

61

What three morphologies can be artificially made?

Crenation, Rouleaux and teardrops