Everyday Memory and Memory Errors (Chapter 8) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Everyday Memory and Memory Errors (Chapter 8) Deck (33)
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Knowledge about a particular aspect of the environment ("What's in a restaurant?")



Knowledge about the sequence of actions that occur during a particular experience ("What happens when you go to a restaurant?")


DRM paradigm

Presented with a list of words that relate to a theme word: likely to misremember theme word as part of list (spreading activation)


Jill price's perfect memory

Hard to live with: cannot forget bad memories and emotional impact of those memories doesn't fade
Similar activity in her brain to that of an OCD patient


Flashbulb memory

Vivid, detailed, and seemingly unforgettable memory for the circumstances surrounding hearing about shocking events


Now-print mechanism

Used to describe flashbulb memories
Similar to a polaroid camera: brain captures detail of event, which remains in the memory like a photograph (resistant to fading)


High adrenaline state's effect on memory

Feel like time moves slowly
See more details


Evidence of whether flashbulb memories are special

Test: ask people to recall event immediately after it unfolds, then ask again after specific periods in time
Researchers found that as time goes on, memory is affected by experience (people only think that their memories are better for flashbulb memories)
There is no difference in accuracy for flashbulb and normal memories
Flashbulb memories are special in terms of emotion and personal connection to memory


Narrative rehearsal hypothesis

We feel more confident about flashbulb memories because we have rehearsed them by telling about them over and over


Prospective memory

Remembering to do something in the future
Depends on remembering what you need to do and remembering to do it


Cued vs. uncued prospective memory tasks

Cued: regularly occurs or something in environment tells you to do it
Uncued: nothing in environment tells you to do it
Cued tasks are easier to remember
Uncued tasks get harder as one grows older


Autobiographical memory

Special type of episodic memory: memories of things that are important to you (things you'd put in your autobiography)


How mental time travel occurs in autobiographical memories

Field perspective (seeing memory in first person): more common in recent memories
Observer perspective (seeing yourself in the memory): more common in distant, remote memories


Reminiscence bump

Older people have the best memory for things that occurred in their 20s, followed by things that recently occurred


Memory errors of omission (forgetting)

Transience (fading over time)
Absent-mindedness (didn't pay attention to it in the first place)
Blocking ("tip of the tongue"- know that you know it, but can't retrieve it)


Memory errors of commission

Misattribution (assigning memory to wrong source)
Suggestibility (memories implanted as result of leading questions, comments, or suggestions when person is trying to call up past experience)
Bias (current knowledge and beliefs influence how past is remembered)
Persistence (inability to forget things that would be preferred to be forgotten)


What commission builds on

Omission (must have forgotten something that now needs to be filled in)


Constructive nature of memory

Filling in the blanks with prior knowledge and experience
Memory can be constructed (isn't unchanging)


Becoming famous overnight study

Participants read non-famous names from phone book, then took a test immediately afterwards (names from phone book, famous names, new non-famous names: asked which were famous), then took same test after 24 hours
Result: people did well on immediate test, but after 24 hours, misattributed non-famous names in phone book to famous people
Misattribution: forgotten where name had been heard (media or phone book), so assumed that non-famous names were famous


Propaganda effect

The more you hear something, the more familiar it becomes, and the more it appeals to you
Use familiarity to make judgments


Mistaking bystanders for perpetrators

Eyewitness accounts aren't always accurate- bystanders are familiar and eyewitness remembers seeing bystanders, but forgets what bystanders were doing


Role of schemas in misattribution

When using schemas, there is a possibility of committing a memory error


Recovered memories of abuse

Example of suggestibility
Therapist implants memory of abuse by giving patient repeated leading questions ("You seem to be showing patterns of behavior that are typical of victims of abuse. Are you sure that you haven't been abused?")
Patient begins to believe that he/she has been abused and then falsely creates memory of abuse


Misinformation effect

Study: people are shown picture of accident (no broken glass or injured people- emotional involvement should be low)
Supplied with misinformation (though there was a stop sign, officer asks "How fast was car going when it ran through the yield sign?")
Significant percentage of people misremember stop sign as yield sign


Why misinformation effect occurs

Misleading post event information replaces the original memory (stop sign is overwritten by yield sign in memory)
Misleading post event information causes retroactive interference (learning about yield sign makes it harder to remember stop sign)
Source monitoring error (witnessing accident and police officer's questions are 2 different sources- forgetting source but remembering stop and yield signs, guess which one was correct)


Practical advice to avoid misinformation effect

When you think that you may be called upon to give a statement, write down what you saw before anyone asks you any questions!


Consistency bias

Tendency to remember things as staying the same


Examples of consistency bias

Chronic pain patients rate their levels of pain the same in the past as in the present (currently in pain, remember pain as being higher in the past than actually was)
People struggling in relationships: "I always knew that he/she was a bad person!"


Change bias

Remembering changes that didn't actually occur


Example of change bias

PMS: women's mood swings aren't really tied to their menstrual cycles, even if they report that they are