Working Memory (Chapter 5) Flashcards Preview

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1

Problem with short term memory theory

People are able to store things and focus on something else without eliminating that memory

2

Working memory model

Central executive overlaps both phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad

3

Phonological loop

Short-term storage of verbal and auditory information
Used in repetition of information in head
Function: phonological coding and manipulation of what is heard in environment

4

Visuospatial sketchpad

Short-term storage of visual and spatial information
Used to store and manipulate images

5

Phonological similarity effect

Easier to recall list of letters that sound phonologically different than list of letters that sound phonologically similar, even when given written list of letters

6

Word length effect

Words that are shorter in length are better retained in working memory than those that are longer in length
Occurs because phonological loop fills up faster with more syllables

7

Capacity of phonological loop

Approximately 2 seconds

8

Articulatory suppression

Phonological loop has lessened capacity when speaking
The same loop is used for storage and rehearsal- it gets filled up with hearing oneself talk
Written information presented must be stored in visuospatial sketchpad, which isn't as efficient at storing words
Word length effect is wiped out (syllables are irrelevant when word is coded visually)

9

Storing and processing information visually or auditorily

When storing visual information, processing is faster verbally
When storing verbal information, processing is faster visually
Reason: spreading load across two systems

10

When interference occurs

Trying to carry out 2 tasks within one component of working memory

11

Central executive

Moving information to and from long term memory
Spreads cognitive load across phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and long term memory
Directs attention across tasks

12

Relationship between working memory and attention

Working memory is essentially attention

13

Prefrontal cortex and working memory

Prefrontal cortex is essential for proper function of working memory
Damage to prefrontal cortex creates deficits in working memory