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Flashcards in Neuroscience Deck (30)
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1

Features of action potential

All-or-none law: either total potential or no potential (like light switch)
Refractory period: time needed to regenerate potential in order to fire again (like toilet flushing)

2

Neuronal excitation

Increasing the firing of a neuron

3

Neuronal inhibition

Decreasing the firing of a neuron

4

Medulla

Lower area of brain
Breathing, heart rate, swallowing/digestion

5

Hypothalamus

Lower area of brain
Aggression, sex drive

6

Cerebellum

Lower area of brain
Coordination of motor movements, multitasking/ switching from one activity to the next

7

Thalamus

Lower area of brain
Transportation of raw sensory data to higher order processing regions of brain

8

Neocortex/cerebral cortex/cortex

Higher order processing regions of brain

9

Corpus callosum

Connects right and left sides of brain

10

Occipital lobe

Located in back portion of cortex (touching temporal and parietal lobes)
Sight
Location of visual cortex

11

Temporal lobe

Located in bottom portion of cortex (touching parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes)
Hearing and language

12

Parietal lobe

Located in top middle portion of cortex (touching frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes)
Touch
Location of somatosensory cortex

13

Frontal lobe

Located in front portion of cortex (touching parietal and temporal lobes)
Higher order cognition (focusing, shifting focus, decision making, problem solving)
Location of primary motor cortex

14

Hippocampal region

Towards center of brain, but below cortex
Important for memory (particularly forming new memories)
Interior to temporal lobe

15

Why smells can be such powerful memory triggers

Area for processing smell is near area for processing memories

16

Amygdala

Emotion processing (particularly fight or flight)
Social processing

17

Location of Broca's area

Temporal lobe (near frontal lobe)

18

Location of Wernicke's area

Temporal lobe (near parietal lobe)

19

Organization of somatosensory cortex

Touching a certain area of this region of the brain corresponds to touching a certain body part
Homunculi: "little men" (represent body parts that correspond to a certain area of this region)

20

Methods used to study brain anatomy

CT and MRI

21

Methods used to study loss of brain function

Neuropsychology, TMS

22

Methods used to measure brain activity indirectly

PET, fMRI

23

Methods used to measure brain activity directly

EEG, MEG, ERP, single cell recording

24

CT and MRI

Used to detect brain damage
MRI is more detailed than CT
CT is better at picking up certain things (brain bleeding, etc.)
MRI can be used to detect disease pathology over time

25

Neuropsychology

Studying effects of brain damage
Often looks at double dissociation (tells us that 2 processes that normally go together are separate and independent)
Example: perception without sensation (blindsight) vs. sensation without perception (prosopagnosia- face blindness)

26

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

Magnetic field temporarily induces damage to 1 specific area of brain
Can be used to further study functions of specific areas of brain
Low spatial resolution (whole parts of brain), high temporal resolution (millisecond to second)

27

Positron emission tomography (PET)

Indirectly measure brain functioning
Radioactive tracer in bloodstream is detected by scanner
Blood flow increases in areas of brain that are active during a cognitive process
Low spatial (whole brain regions) and low temporal (minutes to hours) resolution

28

fMRI

Indirectly measure brain functioning
Measure blood flow in brain without radioactivity
Uses magnet to line up hemoglobin molecules
Activity: loss of O2 causes stronger magnetic response
More accurate than PET
Low spatial (whole brain regions) and low temporal (minutes to hours) resolution

29

Single cell recording

Recording electrode positioned near neuron
Reference electrode positioned outside of tissue
Difference in charge between recording and reference: action potential
High spatial (single neuron) and temporal (milliseconds to seconds) resolution

30

Event-related potential (ERP)

Directly measure brain functioning
Small electrodes placed on person's scalp
Each electrode picks up signals that fire together
Ideal for investigating fast processes (can pick up rapid signals)
Disadvantage: hard to pinpoint exact areas of brain
High temporal (milliseconds to seconds), but low spatial (whole areas of brain) resolution