Long Term Memory- Storing and Retrieving (Chapter 7) Flashcards Preview

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Process of obtaining information and storing it in LTM



Process of transferring information from LTM to STM/working memory



Keeps information active in STM
Doesn't guarantee transfer to LTM


Maintenance rehearsal

Low effort
Pure repetition (just repeating over and over)
Keeps things active in STM/working memory


Elaborative rehearsal

High effort
Thinking about meaning of what you are trying to encode and relate it to other ideas
Keep in LTM


Levels of processing theory

Memory depends on how deeply it is encoded
Shallow processing and deep processing


Shallow processing

Requires little attention
Focusing on physical characteristics (sounds of words, etc.)


Deep processing

Requires a lot of attention
Focusing on the meaning of information


Testing the levels of processing theory

Have people learn pairs of words with different tasks (shallow or deep processing tasks)
Shallow processing task: asking if words in pair have same number of syllables
Deep processing task: form a mental image of the two words interacting
Recall as many words as possible: deep processing group did better


Problems with levels of processing theory

Circular definition: can't define deep processing and memory performance separately of one another
Can't explain all experimental results (experiment that asked people to recall words that had been presented: participants who had been presented with task to determine if words rhymed or not actually did better on rhyming recognition task than participants who had been presented with task to determine if words made sense in a sentence)


Transfer appropriate processing

Memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval


Retrieval cues

Words or other stimuli that help people remember information stored in memory


Free vs. cued recall experiment

Presented list of words to learn
Free recall group: recall words
Cued recall group: recall words, given the categories that specific words fell under
Cued recall group outperformed free recall group


Encoding specificity

Information is encoded together with its context
Study: have people learn word associations while listening to music or sitting in silence, then test
People perform best when condition of retrieval matches that of encoding


6 memory tips

1. Generate your own retrieval cues
2. Use effective approaches to encoding
3. Approach memory as a physical attribute- hard work is needed
4. Rote memorization doesn't work without understanding
5. Practice techniques for expanding memory
6. Know what you know


Generate your own retrieval cues

Study: people were able to remember words better when using their own retrieval cues rather than someone else's
Set up retrieval cues that are likely to be present when you need the info later


Use effective approaches to encoding

Create connections between what you already know and what you are trying to learn
Active creation
Organization according to meaning


Create connections between what you already know and what you are trying to learn

Memory for word is better when placed in complex sentence
Imagery: create an image of what you are trying to remember
Linking information to self


Active creation

Actively generate information
Test yourself over information


Organization according to meaning

Recall by groups (come up with common themes that tie things together)
Present information in an organized way (make a tree diagram)
Put information into a meaningful framework (understand how things relate to each other)


Cognitively active learning behaviors

Writing own study questions
Figuring out answer before looking it up
Closing notes and testing how much is remembered
Breaking down complex processes step by step


Rote memorization study (pizzeria)

People read story (some knew it was about a pizzeria, some did not) and tried to recall as many phrases from it as possible
Those who knew what story was about were able to remember it better


Techniques for expanding memory

Finding meaning of information
Using imagery
Method of loci (store info at a particular location, such as a place you are familiar with: place information at different spots along route through familiar place)


Medial temporal lobe (MTL)

Portion of temporal lobe responsible for memory (tempus- Latin for "time," like mental time travel)
Located near the middle of the brain
Contains the hippocampus



Located in medial temporal lobe
Responsible for forming new long term memories


How the amygdala relates to memory

Amygdala is responsible for fight or flight response (and emotion in general)
When in a highly emotional state (amygdala is active), there is greater encoding of memory



Process of forming new long term memories
Making memories stronger and more resistant to forgetting
Involves neural reorganization


Synaptic consolidation

First presentation of stimulus: weak signal at synapse
Continued presentation of stimulus: structure of axon is changed to create increased rate of firing (more efficient at relating signal)
Rapid process


Systems consolidation

Gradual reorganization of brain circuitry (entire neural network)


Standard model of memory consolidation

Retrieval depends on hippocampus during consolidation
After consolidation, cortex is used to retrieve memory
During reactivation (resetting of memory; occurs during sleep), hippocampus reactivates neural activity associated with the memory