Flashcards in Evolutionary Development Deck (25)
What is the genetic similarity between a sheep and a human?
What is the genetic similarity between a chicken and a human?
What is the genetic similarity between a mouse and a human?
List model organisms useful for developmental biology.
Mouse, chicken, frog, drosophila, zebrafish, worm
List the model organisms useful for fundamental molecular biology
What are the advantages of C elegans?
Easy to cultivate
Short development- 3 days
What percentage of human genes implicated in disease have C elegans orthologues?
How many somatic cells does a round worm have?
Which model organism has had its every single cell mapped?
How many neurons and synapses does a round worm have?
What major discoveries were made using the round worm?
Certain cells must undergo apoptosis, regulation of organ development
Development of green fluorescent proteins
What major discoveries were made using drosophila?
Genes are located on chromosomes
Chromosome inheritance specifies gender
Exchange of genetic material
Exposure to X-rays can cause mutations
What are the advantages of Drosophila?
Proliferative breeding rate
Breeding age- 10 days
75% of human genes have orthologues in Drosophila
Large amount of previous research
What studies have Drosophila been widely used for?
Genetics, body patterning, stem cell biology, reproductive biology
What percentage of human genes have a counter part and orthologues in zebrafish?
75% and 84%
What are advantages of zebrafish?
Transparent embryo outside the mother, rapid growth (36 hours for major organs), can add substances by adding them to water
What is studied in zebrafish?
Regeneration, neuronal activity, patterning, cardiac development, muscle development, cancer, sleep.
What are disadvantages of drosophila?
Not blood vessels, invertebrates, no antibodies
What are advantages of frogs?
Cellular and molecular mechanisms conserved, vertebrate, many large oocytes
What major discoveries have been made using the frog?
Adult nucleus can be reprogrammed by its environment to act as an embryonic cell
What is studied using the frog?
Ovarian biology, neurobiology, eye, heart development, cancer, immunology.
What was a major discovery made using chicken?
Embryos change morphology during development.
What are the advantages of chicken?
External development, can open up eggs at different stages, early stages highly similar to humans
What is studied using chicken?
Early embryonic development, body patterning, reproductive biology.