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Flashcards in Evolutionary Development Deck (25)
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1

What is the genetic similarity between a sheep and a human?

80%

2

What is the genetic similarity between a chicken and a human?

60%

3

What is the genetic similarity between a mouse and a human?

75%

4

List model organisms useful for developmental biology.

Mouse, chicken, frog, drosophila, zebrafish, worm

5

List the model organisms useful for fundamental molecular biology

Bacteria, yeast

6

What are the advantages of C elegans?

Small- 1mm
Easy to cultivate
Short development- 3 days

7

What percentage of human genes implicated in disease have C elegans orthologues?

40%

8

How many somatic cells does a round worm have?

959

9

Which model organism has had its every single cell mapped?

Round worm

10

How many neurons and synapses does a round worm have?

302, 8000

11

What major discoveries were made using the round worm?

Certain cells must undergo apoptosis, regulation of organ development
RNA interference
Development of green fluorescent proteins

12

What major discoveries were made using drosophila?

Genes are located on chromosomes
Chromosome inheritance specifies gender
Exchange of genetic material
Exposure to X-rays can cause mutations

13

What are the advantages of Drosophila?

Inexpensive
Proliferative breeding rate
Breeding age- 10 days
4 chromosomes
75% of human genes have orthologues in Drosophila
Large amount of previous research

14

What studies have Drosophila been widely used for?

Genetics, body patterning, stem cell biology, reproductive biology

15

What percentage of human genes have a counter part and orthologues in zebrafish?

75% and 84%

16

What are advantages of zebrafish?

Transparent embryo outside the mother, rapid growth (36 hours for major organs), can add substances by adding them to water

17

What is studied in zebrafish?

Regeneration, neuronal activity, patterning, cardiac development, muscle development, cancer, sleep.

18

What are disadvantages of drosophila?

Not blood vessels, invertebrates, no antibodies

19

What are advantages of frogs?

Cellular and molecular mechanisms conserved, vertebrate, many large oocytes

20

What major discoveries have been made using the frog?

Adult nucleus can be reprogrammed by its environment to act as an embryonic cell

21

What is studied using the frog?

Ovarian biology, neurobiology, eye, heart development, cancer, immunology.

22

What was a major discovery made using chicken?

Embryos change morphology during development.

23

What are the advantages of chicken?

External development, can open up eggs at different stages, early stages highly similar to humans

24

What is studied using chicken?

Early embryonic development, body patterning, reproductive biology.

25

Disruption in what signalling molecules leads to polydactyly?

Sonic hedgehog