EX3 Embryology - Urinary System Flashcards Preview

SP14 Anatomy > EX3 Embryology - Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX3 Embryology - Urinary System Deck (47):
1

What germ layer is the urinary system derived from

intermediate mesoderm

2

True or False
The intermediate mesoderm becomes retroperitoneal

True

3

What is first formed from the intermediate mesoderm

bilateral urogenital ridge

4

What are the two portions of the urogenital ridge

nephrogenic cord
gonadal ridge

5

This is the lateral portion of the urogenital ridge; responsible for urinary structures

nephrogenic cord

6

This is the medial portion of the urogenital ridge; responsible for genital structures

gonadal ridge

7

What are the three stages of kidney development

pronephros
mesonephros
metanephros

8

This stage of kidney development begins early in week 4 and is present for only a few days

pronephros

9

This stage of kidney development is from weeks 4-10, becoming functional at week 6

mesonephros

10

This stage of kidney development is from week 5 and beyond, developing into the definitive kidney and is function at weeks 9/10

metanephros

11

The pronephros develops bilaterally in which region

cervical

12

The pronephros consist of what type of tissue

a solid rod of intermediate mesoderm connected to epithelial-lined buds

13

The mesonephros develops in which region

throacolumbar

14

What does the mesonephros use to guide its formation

the pronephros

15

What three things make up the mesonephros

mesonephric duct
mesonephric tubules
mesonephric vesicles

16

The mesonephric duct functions as what in adults

the ductus deferens in males

17

The mesonephric tubule functions as what in adults

efferent ductules of testes

18

The mesonephric tubule elongates to act as what

the tubular part of nephron

19

The mesonephric vesicle functions as what

Bowman's casule; contains the glomerulus

20

True or False
There are 45-50 glomeruli per mesospheric kidney

False; there are only 10-15

21

In which direction does the mesonephros grown

caudally toward the cloaca

22

Once the mesonephros contacts the cloaca what happens

it hollows out (caudal to cranial)
the ureteric bud (metanephric diverticulum) forms

23

What initiates the formation of the metanephros

the mesonephros contacting the cloaca

24

What are the two components of the metanephros

ureteric bud (metanephric diverticulum)
metanephrogenic blastema

25

The metanephrogenic blastema is derived from what tissue

mesenchyme of nephrogenic cord

26

The ureteric bud gives rise to what portion of the kidney

collecting portion;
ureter
renal pelvis
major and minor calyces
collecting tubules

27

The blastema gives rise to what portion of the kidney

extretory protion;
distal convoluted tubule
loop of hence
proximal convoluted tubule
Bowman's capsule

28

What is reciprocal induction

communication between the ureteric bud and blastema is required for kidney development

29

True or False
The kidneys descend into proper position

False; they ascend to reach the suprarenal glands

30

What is the original blood supply of the kidneys

common iliac artery

31

What is the final blood supply of the kidneys

right and left renal artery

32

Failure of the temporary blood supply of the kidneys to regress leads to what

accessory renal arteries
common occurrence (~25% of adults have 2-4 aa)

33

This is when the poles of the kidneys (usually inferior) fuse together blocking the ascent due to blockage of the IMA

horseshoe kidney

34

The urorectal septum divides the cloaca into what components

urogenital sinus (ventrally)
anorectal canal (dorsally)

35

What urogenital sinus derives into what components in males and females

urinary bladder (and allantosis)
urethra

36

The urogenital sinus derives into what components in males

prostate
bulbourethral glands

37

The urogenital sinus derives into what components in females

vestibule or vagina
vestibular glands

38

This closes off to form the urachus (fibrous cord)

allantosis

39

This coveres the obliterated urachus in the adult

median umbilical fold

40

What type of urachal abnormalities can exist

urachal cyst
urachal sinus
urachal fistula

41

This develops from the distal portions of the mesonephric ducts as they are incorporated into the posterior wall of the urinary bladder

trigone

42

What is meant by "water under the bridge"

the ureter is below the mesenepric duct (future vas deferens)

43

This results from failure of anterior abdominal wall to close

urinary bladder exstrophy (exposed to enternal environment)

44

This results from the failure of one or both of the kidneys to form (ureteric bud fails or reciprocal induction fails)

renal agenesis

45

Renal a genesis can lead to what

oligohyraminos (too little amnionic fluid)
potter syndrome (from bilateral)

46

True or False
Potter syndrome is 100% fatal

True; leads to the lack of development of other organs and causes deformities

47

True or False
A crosses renal ectopia kidney (2 on one side) is more common than a pelvic kidney

False; a crosses renal ectopia is 1/10,000 and a pelvic kidney is 1/1,000