EX3 Neuro - Basal Ganglia Flashcards Preview

SP14 Anatomy > EX3 Neuro - Basal Ganglia > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX3 Neuro - Basal Ganglia Deck (32):
1

What are the four clinically significant basal ganglia

striatum (neostriatum)
globus pallidus (paleostratum)
substantia nigra
subthalamic nucleus

2

This lies lateral to the thalamus and is divided by the internal capsule

striatum

3

What are the three nuclei that make up the striatum

caudate nucleus
putamen
nucleus accumbens

4

What are the two nuclei that make up the lenticular (lentiform) nucleus

putamen
globus pallidus

5

What cortical areas project into the basal ganglia

the cerebral cortex sends fibers to the basal ganglia

6

What is the target of the fibers from the cerebral cortex to the basal ganglia

striatum; caudate nucleus, putamen
medial segment of the globus pallidus

7

What is the structure that separates the caudate nucleus and putamen

internal capsule

8

What is the neurotransmitter that originates within nerve cell bodies that make up the substantia nigra pars compacta

dopamine

9

What disease is a result from a loss of dopamine nerve cell bodies in the substantia nigra

Parkinson's disease

10

What is the inhibitory neurotransmitter of the caudate-putamen and globus pallidus

GABA

11

What does disinhibition mean

to make something less inhibited; taking the foot off the brake

12

What two nuclei contain neurons that are disinhibited by the action of the globus pallidus

subthalamic nucleus
thalamus VL nucleus

13

What is the end result of the disinhibition of the sub thalamic nucleus and thalamus VL nucleus

disinhibition of the indirect loop
*motor activity

14

What is athetoid

slow, involuntary, twisting, writhing movements
usually a result of damage to the striatum during childbirth

15

What is choreiform

spastic, irregular, involuntary, purposeless, abrupt, rapid, nonrepetitive movements that flow from one body part to another

16

What causes choreiform

Huntington's disease/Syndenham's chorea
loss of GABAergic neurons in the striatum

17

What is ballism (ballistic)

large amplitude flinging, repetitive, various, flailing movements (throwing ball)

18

What causes ballism

damage to the sub thalamic nucleus

19

What is akinesia

no movement

20

What is bradykinesia

decreased speed of movement

21

What is hypokinesia

decreased amplitude of movement

22

The loss of what neurons and of which neurotransmitter cause the motor dysfunction seen in Huntington's disease

loss of GABAergis neurons in the striatum

23

The loss of what neurons and of which neurotransmitter cause the motor dysfunction seen in Parkinson's disease

degeneration of dopamine-secreting substantia nigra pars compacta

24

The loss of what neurons and of which neurotransmitter cause the motor dysfunction seen in hemiballism

damage to subtalamic nucleus

25

What region of the cortex is the target of efferent signals from the basal ganglia

motor cortex

26

This thalamic nucleus is associated with declarative memory

anterior nucleus

27

This thalamic nucleus is associated with touch sensation

VPM and VPL
ventral posteriomedial nucleus
ventral posteriolateral nucleus

28

This thalamic nucleus is associated with motor control

VA and VL
ventroanterior nucleus
ventrolateral nucleus

29

This thalamic nucleus is associated with audition and vision

medial geniculate body (MGB); auditory
lateral geniculate body (LGB); vision

30

What is procedural memory

memory for the performance of particular actions
motor loop; putamen

31

What is an example of a thalamic association nucleus

mediodorsal nucleus

32

What is an example of a non-specific thalamic nucleus

intralaminar nucleus