Final Embryo - Respiratory Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Embryo - Respiratory Development Deck (39):
1

This appears in the floor of the caudal pharynx

laryngotracheal groove

2

The laryngotracheal groove protrudes ventral forming an endodermal outgrowth from the foregut called what

lung bud (respiratory diverticulum)

3

This develops, separating the lung bud (ventrally) from the foregut (dorsally)

tracheosophageal septum

4

The respiratory diverticulum retains a connection with the pharynx where

primordial laryngeal inget

5

What abnormalities can occur during respiratory development and what risk is associated with them

tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia
risk of polyhydramnios

6

The lung bud develops to form what

larynx, trachea, respiratory tree, and lungs

7

This germ layer forms the epithelial lining and glands of the airway

endoderm

8

This germ layer forms the smooth muscle and CT of the airway

splanchnic mesoderm

9

This developed as the portion of the foregut immediately caudal to thy pharynx

esophagus

10

Which pharyngeal arch pairs give rise to the laryngeal cartilage and musculature

4 and 6

11

What forms the epiglottis

mesenchyme of the caudal hypopharyngeal eminence

12

Laryngeal muscules arising from the 4th arch are innervated by hat

superior laryngeal nerve

13

Laryngeal muscles arising from the 6th arch are innervated by what

recurrent laryngeal nerve

14

The lung bud divides to from what

the primary bronchial buds (future primary bronchi)

15

This type of mesoderm gives rise to the visceral pleura of the lungs

splanchnic mesoderm

16

This type of mesoderm lining the thoracic body gives rise to the parietal pleura

somatic mesoderm

17

The primary bronchial buds divide for form what

secodnary (lobar) bronchial buds

18

How many secondary (lobar) buds are there

3 on the right
2 on the left

19

The secondary bronchial buds divide to form what

teritiary (segmental) bronchial buds

20

What consists of a bronchopulmonary segment

tertiary bronchus + surrounding tissue

21

How many tertiary (segmental) buds are there

10 on the right
8 or 9 on the left

22

What stage of lung development happens during weeks 6- 16

pseudoglandular

23

What stage of lung development happens during weeks 16-26

canalicular

24

What stage of lung development happens from week 26 until birth

terminal sac

25

What stage of lung development happens from week 32 until 8 years of age

alveolar

26

In this stage of lung development all major lung structures have developed except for the most distal portions where gas exchange takes place

pseudoglandular stage

27

What does the lung tissue look like during the pseudoglandular stage

it appears histologically as a collection of exocrine glands

28

Can a fetus born during the pesudoglandular stage survive?

No

29

In this stage of lung development respiration is possible near the end where each terminal bronchiole has split into 2+ respiratory bronchioles developing primitive alveolar ducts

Canalicular stage

30

What becomes of the lung tissue during the canalicular stage

it becomes highly vascular

31

Can a fetus born during the canalicular stage survive?

At the end, possibly; although many die

32

In this stage of lung developments more terminal sacs develop and capillaries arrive firing the blood-air barrier; will see type I and type II alveolar cells

termninal sac stage

33

What is the purpose of type I alveolar cells

This is through which the gasses diffuse

34

What is the purpose of type II alveolar cells

they produce, store, and secrete pulmonary surfactant

35

This lines the inner walls of alveolus, reducing surface tension at the air-alveolar interface preventing alveolar collapse upon exhaling

pulmonary surfactant

36

When do type II alveolar cells begin producing surfactant

20-22 weeks, the amount though is insufficient for survival until weeks 26-28

37

What could a baby suffer from is born between 24-26 weeks due to insufficient surfactant

respiratory distress syndrom

38

In this stage of lung development, the alveoli are fully functional

alveolar stage

39

What percentage of mature alveoli develop postnatally continuing until 8 years of age

95% (most within the first three years)