EX3 Neuro - Reticular Formation and Cerebellum Flashcards Preview

SP14 Anatomy > EX3 Neuro - Reticular Formation and Cerebellum > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX3 Neuro - Reticular Formation and Cerebellum Deck (51):
1

Where are the raphe nuclei located

midbrain
pons
medulla
- medial nuclei of reticular formation

2

Where do midbrain raphe nuclei project

cerebral cortex

3

Where do pontine and medullar raphe nuclei project

spinal cord

4

Where does the nucleus rape magnus project

spinal cord

5

What neurotransmitter is associated with the raphe nuclei

serotonin; to supress pain

6

Where is the raphe spinal tract located

begins at dorsal raphe nucleus, decussates at midbrain

7

Where does the raphe spinal tract project

synapses on interneurons in lamina I, II, V of spinal cord

8

What is the relationship between the periaqueductal gray and pain control

it receives and inhibits pain signals

9

What is the relationship between the PAG and motor behavior

regulates heart/respiration rates
initiates defensive and reproductive behaviors

10

What is the major source of input to the PAG

ascending sensory system
descending signals from limbic system

11

Where is the locus ceruleus

located between base cerebellar attachment point and rostral pons "brain watchtower"

12

What is the input to the locus ceruleus

afferents from hypothalamus (also cingulate gyrus, amygdala)

13

What are the targets of the neurons that make up the locus ceruleus

excitatory effect on most of the brain

14

What is the neurotransmitter associated with locus ceruleus and its effect

norepinephrine; pain inhibition

15

Where is the ventral tegmental area locate

floor of midbrain tegmentum

16

What are the two major tracts that arise from the ventral tegmental area

mesocortico fibers; to frontal cortex
mesolimbic fibers; to nuclus accumbens and striatum

17

What is the neurotransmitter associated with the ventral tegmental area and its effect

dopamine; DO things
reward, pleasure, euphoria

18

The ascending reticular activating system controls what

sleep and wakefulness

19

How does the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum control sleep and wakefulness

via sending acetylcholine to hypothalamus which promotes wakefulness and to the cortex to maintain wakefulness

20

How does the hypothalamus control sleep and wakefulness

when the anterior hypothalamus is active = sleep
inactive = awake

21

What is the switch from asleep to awake

lateral hypothalamus; it maintains being awake

22

What three things are connected via the sleep - wake cycle

locus ceruleus
raphe nuclei
pontine tegmenum

23

What cavity of the skull is the cerebellum found

posterior cranial fossa

24

What is the primary function of the cerebellum

motor coordination; output of motor cortex and motor nuclei

25

These are the cells that contain the only axon that leaves the cortex aiming for the cerebellar nucleus

Purkinje cells

26

These fibers arise from spinal cord and brainstem sensory pathway relaying signals from proprioceptive receptors

mossy fibers

27

These are excitatory cells that give rise to parallel fibers

granular cells

28

These cells lie in one layer, perpendicular to the parallel fibers

Purkinje cells

29

Activation of granular cells (via mossy fibers) produce what

simple spikes from Purkinje cells of which are inhibitory (GABA)

30

What causes Purkinje cells to produce complex spikes

climbing fibers from the inferior olive

31

What are the three peduncles that connect the cerebellum with the brainstem

superior cerebellar
middle cerebellar
inferior cerebellar

32

The superior peduncle carries fibers which direction in regards to the cerebellum

out (and in)

33

The middle peduncle carries fibers in which direction in regards to the cerebellum

in

34

The inferior cerebellar peduncle carries fibers in which direction in regards to the cerebellum

in (and out)

35

What sensation is carried in the spinocerebellar tract

joint and limb location

36

What are the three physiological subdivisions of the cerebellum

vestibulocerebellum
spinocerebellum
pontocerebellum

37

What does the vestibulocerebellum correlate to regarding anatomical subdivisions

flocculonodular lobe
fastgial nucleus

38

What does the spinocerebellum correlate to regarding anatomical subdivisions

paranormal area
interposed nucleus

39

What does the pontocerebellum correlate to regarding anatomical subdivisions

lateral hemisphere
dentate nucleus

40

The motor cortex does what in the CTCC loop

send out two signals to do a certain action (raise big toe 1 cm)

41

The first signal from the motor cortex in the CTCC loop goes where

to the spinal cord and spinal musculaure to move the intended target

42

The second signal from the motor cortex in the CTCC loop goes where

to the pons, then cerebellum; essentially waiting for the propioception response

43

Once the cerebellum (CTCC) receives the propioception response, what happens

modifications are made if need be; sending signals to the thalamus then to motor cortex again and out once more

44

The olivo-cerebellar loop is responsible for what

control the timing over short-term
activation of the climbing fibers from inferior olive
"error or teaching" signal

45

A flocculonodular lobe lesion affects which cerebellar region

vestibulocerebellar tract

46

What is the result of a flocculonodular lobe lesion

nystagmus; back and forth eye movements (slowly in one direction, fast in the other)
truncal ataxia; disturbances in balance while seated
"inabilty to follow finger"

47

A paravermal/vermal lesion will affect which cerebellar region

spinocerebellar tract

48

What is the result of a paraverma/vermal lesion

stance and gait ataxia
"inability to walk white line"

49

A lesion of the lateral hemisphere affects which cerebellar region

pontoerebellar tract

50

What is the result of a lesion of the lateral hemisphere

involvement of arm and speech
intention tremors
dysmetria "finger-to-nose" failure (too far or too short)
dysarthria;explosive or slurred speech

51

What does the martini do to the olive?

Increased activity in inferior olive with tremors
Dysfunction of electrical synapses in inferior olive