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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (34)
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1

-composed of C,H,O
-provide major source of fuel for the body
-basic unit is glucose (monosaccharide)
-simple and complex
(4kcal/gm)

Carbohydrates (CHO)

2

-composed of C,O,H,N
-basic unit is amino acid
-make up bones mucles, other tissues
-9 essential amino acids
-11 nonessential amino acids
(4kcal/gram)

Proteins

3

-composed of various elements
-vital to life
-enable chemical reactions
-needed in tiny amounts
-fat soluble
-water soluble

Vitamins

4

-basic unit is fatty acid
-triglyceride is is major form
-fats and oils
-unsaturated/saturated/essential fatty acids
(9kcal/gm)

Lipids

5

-inorganic substances
-needed in tiny amounts
-not destroyed in cooking

Minerals

6

-composed of H,O
-solvent, lubricant
-medium for transport, chem.processes, temp regulation

Water

7

DRI?

Dietary reference intakes

8

TUL?

Tolerable Upper Limits

9

RDA?

Recommended dietary allowances

10

AI?

Adequate intakes

11

Nutrients a person must obtain from food b/c body cannot make them

Essential nutrients

12

Basic structure of proteins?

Amino acids

13

Basic structures of carbohydrates?

Sugars and starches (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides)

14

Basic structure of fats?

Triglycerides/ saturated and unsaturated fat

15

Basic structures of vitamins?

Organic/water soluble vs fat soluble

16

Basic structure of minerals?

Inorganic

17

What is required on a food label?

-serving size
-calories/calories from fat
-the nutrients & how much of them
-% daily values foot note

18

-Based on the daily value recommendations for key nutrients for a 2,000 calorie daily diet
-Helps you determine if a serving of for is high or low in a nutrient

% Daily Value

19

Food that has essential nutrients added either in greater quantities of those normally or not normally present

Fortified foods

20

Various nutrients added to compensate for essential nutrients removed by refinement

Enriched food

21

Oral cavity containing tongue and teeth

Mouth

22

Passageway leading from the nose and mouth to the larynx & esophagus

Pharynx

23

Cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents food and liquid from entering

Epiglottis

24

The food pipe from mouth to stomach

Esophagus

25

-Circular muscle surrounding and able to close a body opening
-regulates the flow of food particles

Sphincter

26

Muscular elastic saclike portion of digestive system that grinds and churns swallowed foods, mixing it its acids and enzymes forming chyme

Stomach

27

Circular muscle that separates the stomach from the small intestine and regulates the flow partially digested food into small intestine

Pyloric valve/sphincter

28

Major site of digestion of food an absorption of nutrients

Small intestine

29

Organ that stores and concentrates bile

Gallbladder

30

Gland that secretes digestive enzymes and juices into the duodenum

Pancreas