Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (116)
psych: scientific study of … and …
mental activity; behavior
benefits of psych:
teaches critical thinking--> systematically …. information to reach conclusions supported by …--> researched with consistent outcomes
…: principle that mind and body were separate entities that did not interact with one another
rene Descartes- ...:
principle that states that mind and body do, in fact, affect one another
Wilhelm Wundt- …- interested in how perceptual information become a final object (how do we recognize that a plastic bottle is a plastic bottle--> what mental processes were involved)
structuralists use introspection:
introspection: consciously reporting on the processes that go from … to …
2 major problems: perceptions are …/…, affected by …, …, etc
consciously reporting on processes that occur ..
perception; final object; subjective/biased; life experiences; interpretation; unconsciously
William James- principles of psych
human mind is active, inquiring
William James crated an … of all the psych research of his time and called it "principles of psychology"
James recognized early that the human mind is …, that people engage the world
James recognized early that there are … --> primary and secondary, aka … and … memory
encyclopedia; active; separate memory stores; short and long term
Sigmund freud- … theory
structures of the mind: …, …, …
5 distinct stages of … development
id; ego; superego
freud was a pioneer in defense mechanisms- what are they?
…, …, …, etc.
something that is designed to protect the …, when it is threatened with too much anxiety, drama, etc.
alter reality so that the stimulus becomes … to the ego
projection; repression; denial
ego; less threatening
(behaviorists) ivan pavlov - …
Edward thorndike - …/… conditioning --> American psychologist, introduced number of laws that govern ...
classical conditioning; connectionism; instrumental; learning processes
(behaviorists) b.f. skinner - …
john Watson- primary contribution to legitimate psychology, must strictly adhere to … --> American behaviorist, conducted … experiment which demonstrated that … can be conditioned
operant conditioning; scientific method; Little Albert; psychopathology
… studies: taking a population and following that same population over some period of time (e.g. effectiveness of bypass surgery)
… studies: one time snapshot of a different grouping of people. different demographics at the same time. may be differences in age, gender, race, etc. viewing how they respond/responded to one situation
advantage of longitudinal studies: following …
disadvantage of longitudinal: some people may … or …
same people; drop out; die
…: trying to observe the individual in their natural environment --> hoping that they're going to behave in a more natural way, truer picture of how they really behave
the most obvious issue with naturalistic observations is that the observer is … --> if observation is incorrect, … will be incorrect too
case study provides a great amount of detailed information about the subject
difficult to generalize the results to a …
sample size with case studies is …
difficult to identify what causes what to occur: can't determine what's causing the behavior
larger population; 1 person
what does the correlation allow the researcher to determine?
… and … of relationship between 2 variables
analysis of data where you're trying to determine whether a … between 2 variables
no .. is identified by correlation
…: references strength of the relationship
…: whether it is + or -
…: as one variable increases, the other increases as well
…: as one variable increases, the other variable decreases
experiments: systematic manipulation of the environment so that a … of this manipulation can be observed on behavior
..: variables that are being manipulated
..: variables that you are measuring
…: no exposure to independent variable
control variables provide baseline judgment
…: receives independent variable
experimental designs: within and between subjects--> the study you're doing dictates which design is selected
…: same subjects across all conditions
…: different subjects in each condition
within subjects; between subjects
advantage- requires … subjects, truer assessment of the effect of the independent variable on a person when you're comparing it to that same person
development of psych: study of ..., …, and ...
human growth; development; change
… plays greater role in defining personality. values, interests, etc. through is more greatly defined by ...