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psych: scientific study of … and …

mental activity; behavior


benefits of psych:
teaches critical thinking--> systematically …. information to reach conclusions supported by …--> researched with consistent outcomes

evaluating ;evidence


…: principle that mind and body were separate entities that did not interact with one another



rene Descartes- ...:
principle that states that mind and body do, in fact, affect one another

mutual interaction


Wilhelm Wundt- …- interested in how perceptual information become a final object (how do we recognize that a plastic bottle is a plastic bottle--> what mental processes were involved)



structuralists use introspection:
looking internally
introspection: consciously reporting on the processes that go from … to …
2 major problems: perceptions are …/…, affected by …, …, etc
consciously reporting on processes that occur ..

perception; final object; subjective/biased; life experiences; interpretation; unconsciously


William James- principles of psych
human mind is active, inquiring
William James crated an … of all the psych research of his time and called it "principles of psychology"
James recognized early that the human mind is …, that people engage the world
James recognized early that there are … --> primary and secondary, aka … and … memory

encyclopedia; active; separate memory stores; short and long term


Sigmund freud- … theory
structures of the mind: …, …, …
5 distinct stages of … development

id; ego; superego
psychosexual development


freud was a pioneer in defense mechanisms- what are they?
…, …, …, etc.
something that is designed to protect the …, when it is threatened with too much anxiety, drama, etc.
alter reality so that the stimulus becomes … to the ego

projection; repression; denial
ego; less threatening


(behaviorists) ivan pavlov - …
Edward thorndike - …/… conditioning --> American psychologist, introduced number of laws that govern ...

classical conditioning; connectionism; instrumental; learning processes


(behaviorists) b.f. skinner - …
john Watson- primary contribution to legitimate psychology, must strictly adhere to … --> American behaviorist, conducted … experiment which demonstrated that … can be conditioned

operant conditioning; scientific method; Little Albert; psychopathology


… studies: taking a population and following that same population over some period of time (e.g. effectiveness of bypass surgery)



… studies: one time snapshot of a different grouping of people. different demographics at the same time. may be differences in age, gender, race, etc. viewing how they respond/responded to one situation

cross-sectional studies


advantage of longitudinal studies: following …
disadvantage of longitudinal: some people may … or …

same people; drop out; die


…: trying to observe the individual in their natural environment --> hoping that they're going to behave in a more natural way, truer picture of how they really behave

naturalistic observations


the most obvious issue with naturalistic observations is that the observer is … --> if observation is incorrect, … will be incorrect too

fallible; data


case study provides a great amount of detailed information about the subject
difficult to generalize the results to a …
sample size with case studies is …
difficult to identify what causes what to occur: can't determine what's causing the behavior

larger population; 1 person


what does the correlation allow the researcher to determine?
… and … of relationship between 2 variables
analysis of data where you're trying to determine whether a … between 2 variables
no .. is identified by correlation

magnitude; direction
relationship exists
causal effect


…: references strength of the relationship
…: whether it is + or -

magnitude; direction


…: as one variable increases, the other increases as well

positive correlation


…: as one variable increases, the other variable decreases

negative correlation


experiments: systematic manipulation of the environment so that a … of this manipulation can be observed on behavior

causal effect


..: variables that are being manipulated
..: variables that you are measuring

independent; dependent


…: no exposure to independent variable

control condition


control variables provide baseline judgment
…: receives independent variable

experimental condition


experimental designs: within and between subjects--> the study you're doing dictates which design is selected
…: same subjects across all conditions
…: different subjects in each condition

within subjects; between subjects


within subjects:
advantage- requires … subjects, truer assessment of the effect of the independent variable on a person when you're comparing it to that same person

less subjects


development of psych: study of ..., …, and ...

human growth; development; change


… plays greater role in defining personality. values, interests, etc. through is more greatly defined by ...

genetics; nurture


growth typically is both … and in …
periods of time where growth occurs …
other periods of time where it's more .., …

continuous; stages; rapidly; stable, continuous