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1

personality- what is it?
the sets of … and … that define us as a person

characteristics; traits

2

personality: the metaphor of the …
it creates the … vs … self
… self: part that we show to other people
… self: part of us that we don't reveal to others

mask; private; public; public; private

3

need to have public and private self: fear of …, potential … with others, form of … -- don't want to be ridiculed, demeaned; conditioned to not do/say certain things at certain times

judgment; conflict; protection

4

story of jean marie and roselle:
roselle premeditates hitting her friend after jean marie hits her first
person or situation?
can only determine if you …

see individual over many situations

5

jean marie and roselle continued:
… vs …
what does this distinction suggest?
what challenge does it present in relation to personality?

situational; dispositional

6

techniques used to assess symptoms:
…- structured and unstructured

interviews

7

techniques used to assess symptoms:
…: what are they? strengths/weaknesses:
get a better assessment of how they really behave when you're observing someone in their …
problem with any observation: once the person knows they're being observed, their behavior ...

observations; natural setting; changes

8

techniques used to assess symptoms:

…- 2 categories

rating scales
psychological tests

9

techniques used to assess symptoms:
2 categories of psychological tests:
…- consisting of objective items or questions (e.g. a bunch of mc questions)
…: comprised of ambiguous stimuli (inkblots, pictures, incomplete sentences, etc.)--> opposite of objective, subject has to tell researcher what they think of the stimuli presented

objective; projective

10

techniques used to assess symptoms:
interview:
… --> every person is asked the same question; this is both an advantage and disadvantage--> interviewer isn't allowed to explore further questions. might be missing important info
…--> interviewer has flexibility to deviate from the questions

structured; unstructured

11

techniques used to assess symptoms:
objective …:
MMPI-2: Minnesota multiphase personality inventory:
567 questions: measure 9 types of … behavior ranging from depression to schizophrenia, social responsibility, PTSD
difficult for person to cheat/deceive --> advantage
disadvantage is the …

personality tests
abnormal
length

12

projective personality tests: assess what a person … why is this important? by projecting onto an ambiguous stimulus, we learn of the individual's own …, …, and ...

projects onto others; traits; needs; conflicts

13

(projective personality tests) … test- 10 ambiguous inkblot configurations --> shown series of inkblot that has no actual form and you have to say what you think it is and they determine if your response falls into range of normal responses

Rorschach

14

(projective personality tests)
…: series of pictures- task is to create stories
stories reflect personal themes, conflicts, problems, and characters that are important in the person's world

thematic apperception test (TAT)

15

(projective personality tests)
…:
given a sentence fragment that you have to complete
e.g. "what bothers me is that, other people …"

incomplete sentence tests

16

(projective personality tests)
…:
looking for detail and proportionality --> when you're younger, you will draw a simpler drawing but it should still be proportionate
standard level of … and … in terms of age and development

draw a person
detail;; proportionality

17

(projective personality tests)

same idea as draw a person

house tree person test

18

(projective personality tests)
…:
can reveal info about familial relationships

draw a family

19

(defense mechanisms) these are methods used by ego to fight off excessive levels of ..

anxiety

20

(defense mechanisms)
all defense mechanisms have the following characteristics in common:
…, …, … reality- if real event is too threatening or overwhelming, doing this makes it less threatening
… - individual has no say in what defense mechanism will be employed

deny; distort; falsify
unconscious processes

21

(defense mechanisms) …: abrupt and involuntary removal from awareness any threatening impulse/event

repression

22

(defense mechanisms)
…: blocking of external events from entry into awareness

denial

23

(defense mechanisms) diff between repression and denial: in repression it has been …, in denial you are trying to …

experienced; block it from your awareness

24

(defense mechanisms)
…: attribution to another person, one's own unacceptable thoughts, feelings, behaviors --> seeing things in other people that we don't like, but don't see it in yourself

projection

25

(defense mechanisms)
…: transformation on unacceptable or anxiety producing impulses into their opposites
e.g. mother who is upset that her baby is interfering with her life presents to others as a loving mother

reaction formation

26

(defense mechanisms) …: redirection of impulses, usually aggressive ones, onto a substitute target whent he appropriate target is too threatening... why select someone who is less threatening?

displacement/displaced aggression

27

(defense mechanisms) …: adopting the traits, beliefs, and mannerisms of a feared object

identification with the aggressor

28

(defense mechanisms) …: incorporation into one's own behavior and beliefs, the characteristics/traits of another

introjection

29

(defense mechanisms) … : a return to some earlier form of behavior when faced with anxiety --> makes individual feel safer/less anxious

regression

30

(defense mechanisms) …: providing a good reason instead of the real reason for your behavior thereby denying unacceptable motivations

rationalization