Flashcards in Exam 1 - Celiac Disease Deck (18):
What type of disease is celiac disease?
Does it have a genetic component?
Celiac disease is an inherited autoimmune disease that is highly genetic.
It can either be an autoimmune mediated disease (not a food allergy) or intolerance (no immune system involvement) to gluten.
What are the effects of celiac disease on the human body?
When gluten is ingested, the body produces an inflammatory response that damages the villi of the intestinal mucosa.
The villi become deficient in enzymes and carrier proteins. Therefore, the cells atrophy and flatten and absorption is compromised.
Discuss the signs and symptoms of celiac disease.
Compare and contrast symptoms in children versus adults with celiac disease.
There are many signs and symptoms of celiac disease, the most common is gastrointestinal upset.
Children symptoms: digestion symptoms, failure to thrive, delayed growth, short stature, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects of permanent teeth
Adult symptoms: iron deficiency anemia, fatigue, digestion symptoms, weight loss/grain, infertility, etc.
Why is celiac disease difficult to diagnose?
Celiac disease is difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are very common with everyday illnesses.
What are the three major steps in diagnosing celiac disease?
1. Blood Test
> Anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG-IgA)
> Anti-endomysium (EMA)
> Anti-deamidated gliadin peptides (DGP)
2. Tissue biopsy of small intestine
3. Implement a gluten-free diet*
*For an accurate diagnosis, do not implement the gluten-free diet until the blood test and biopsy are complete.
How is celiac disease treated? What should individuals with celiac disease avoid?
***Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) - Main treatment***
Omit all dietary wheat, rye, and barley (sometime oats)
Hidden Sources: Modified food starch, preservatives, stabilizers, natural flavoring
Wheat Free DOES NOT EQUAL Gluten Free
Healing of the Small Intestine = Abstaining from Gluten
How long does intestinal healing take?
It can take anywhere from 6 months up to two years.
What is refractory celiac disease?
Refractory Celiac Disease is where the damage is too extensive that it cannot be fixed
What are some concerns with a gluten free diet?
Small intestine damage, malabsorption, inadequate amounts of minerals and vitamins.
Discuss the functional properties of gluten in baking. What types of baked products will be greatly affected by using gluten-free flours?
Gluten is a protein made up of two smaller proteins:
Gluten = Gliadin + Glutenin
Gluten’s function in baking is to act as a mesh, holding all of the ingredients together. Any baked goods that need an leavening agent (cakes, muffins, breads, etc.) would be greatly affected.
How common is celiac disease?
What are the three stages of celiac disease?
Latent -> Silent -> symptomatic
What are some foods that celiac patients should avoid?
A GF diet is typically consists of what?
Mainly of protein and fats.
Because of this, cooking skills are needed.
To ensure that all of the nutrients are accounted for, vitamin and mineral supplements are recommended.
What are some grains and starches allowed in a gluten-free diet?
Is gluten-free required on labels?
No it is not, it is voluntary.
What's an independent organization that deals with gluten-free processing?
The gluten-free certification program.
It reviews ingredients, tests product, and inspects plants.