Flashcards in Exam 2 - Whole Grains Deck (47):
Where does the definition of whole grain come from?
The Whole Grain Councol
What is a whole grain?
Whole grain foods must contain all three parts of a grain's seed or kernel in the same proportions as they occur in nature. In other words, nothing has been removed.
Products are still considered whole if they contain the germ, bran, and endosperm.
What are the three parts of a whole grain seed?
1. Bran (Hull)
What is the role of the bran?
It protects the seed from weather and pests
If a seed were to become pollinated, where would this occur?
It would occur at the germ.
What part of the grain seed contains fat?
What part of the grain seed contains CHO in the form of starch?
What part of the grain seen contains protein?
What part of the grain seed is typically the one that is processed and consumed? What are some of the missing nutrients?
What is the only missing nutrient in whole wheat?
What does it mean for a product to become enriched?
Enrichment- adding nutritive substances that were NATURALLY PRESENT in the food that were removed during processing.
When we enrich wheat, what do we add?
Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron, calcium, and vitamin D.
What does it mean for a produce to become fortified?
Fortification- added nutritive substances that were NOT naturally present in food.
When we fortify wheat, what do we add?
What kind of nutrients are in the bran?
What kind of nutrients are in the endosperm?
What ind of nutrients are in the bran?
How do you know if a product is whole grain? There are 4 ways.
1. The first ingredient must state, "Whole wheat" or "whole Grain"
2. If the product is made from oats or brown rice... the ingredients list does not need to say "whole"
3. Whole Grain Stamp Program
4. Whole Grain Health Claims
What are some common whole grain products that don't need to say "whole"? (4)
1. Rolled oats or steel cut oats.
2. Brown Rice
4. Hulled Barley
Who created the whole grain stamp program?
The Whole Grains Council
What are the two types of whole grain stamps?
1. Basic Stamp
2. 100% Stamp
How does a product obtain a Whole Grain Basic Stamp?
The product must contain AT LEAST 8g of whole grains/serving.
Which is 1/2 a serving of whole grains.
It can be used on products that contain some non-whole grain ingredients (i.e. extra bran or germ, refined flour)
How does a product obtain a Whole Grain 100% Stamp?
The product must contain AT LEAST 16g of whole grains/serving.
Which is 1 whole serving of whole grains.
All of the grain ingredients are whole grains.
What should a whole grain health claim state?
"Diets rich in whole grain foods and other plant foods, and low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may help reduce the risk of heart disease."
What requirements does a product need to meet to place a whole grain health claim on their package? (4)
1. Meet definitions of low-saturated fats (1g or less of saturated fat/serving)
2. Meet definitions of low cholesterol (20mg or less of cholesterol/serving)
3. Must have quantitative trans fat labeling.
4. Must contain
What is the nutrition of Whole Grains?
They contain all of the major nutrient groups (Protein, CHO, Fats).
They have vitamins, minerals, fiber, oligosaccharides, and a low GI.
They also contain some functional components through phytochemicals and antioxidants.
Whole grains are low in saturated fat, cholesterol free, 10-15% protein, and a good source of dietary fiber.
What are 5 benefits of consuming whole grains?
1. Weight Management
3. Type II Diabetes
4. Gastrointestinal Health
What whole grain components are responsible for health benefits? (5)
Where are phytochemicals found in a grain seed? What is their role?
In the bran and the germ.
They are bioactive compounds that are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases.Some protect against pathogens, parasites, and predators.
What are the FOUR tradition whole grains?
What is a unique fact about wheat?
Durum wheat is used to make semolina flour for pasta.
What is a unique fact about rice?
Rice contains small amounts of fiber compared to other grains.
What is a unique fact about corn?
It has high levels of antioxidants.
What is a unique fact about oats?
It almost NEVER has the barin or germ removed.
It contains a beta-glucan fiber; which is very effective at lowering blood cholesterol.
What is a unique fact about Amaranth?
It is not a true grain (pseudograin).
What is a unique fact about barley?
The fiber in the seed is distributed throughout the endosperm and not just the bran.
What is a unique fact about buckwheat?
It grows well in poor soil.
What is a unique fact about bulgar?
It has a significantly shortened cooking time
What is a unique fact about Millet?
It is prepared like rice. It's a dietary staple in Asia and Africa.
What is a unique fact about Quinoa?
It is not a true grain.
It must be rinsed before cooking to remove saponins (a bitter compound).
What is a unique fact about Rye?
It grows well in cold, wet climates.
It has high level of fiber in the endosperm and a low GI.
What is a unique fact about Sorghum?
Worldwide, it makes up 50% of the crop for human consumption.
What is a unique fact about Triticale?
It is a hybrid of durum wheat and rye.
What are some gluten-free grains? (9)
4. Wild Rice
What is the ratio between cooked and dry grains?
1 Cup Dry = 3 Cups Cooked
How do cook grains?
1. Being water to boil
2. Add the grains
3. Bing back to a boil
4. Turn down and simmer, covered