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Flashcards in Exam 2 - CVD Deck (52):
1

Define CVD.

It is a class of diseases that involve the heart and blood vessels.

It includes: CAD, heart attack, ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes, heart failure, etc.

2

Define CVD.

It is a class of diseases that involve the heart and blood vessels.

It includes: CAD, heart attack, ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes, heart failure, etc.

3

What is atherosclerosis?

A condition that develops when plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries.

4

CVD is the leading cause of death in the U.S., what is its prevalence?

1/3 deaths in America

5

What are some of risk factors associated with CVD? (7)

1. Inactivity
2. Hypertension
3. High cholesterol
4. Poor diet
5. Obesity
6. Smoking
7. Diabetes

6

What is the name of the famous study done on CVD?

Framingham Heart Study

7

What was the main objective of the Framingham Heart Study?

To identify the most common risk factors or characteristics associated with CVD.

8

What were the risk factors that the framingham study find that was linked to CVD?

Major risk factors:
Hypertension
High Cholesterol
Smoking
Obesity
Diabetes
Physical Activity

Other related risk factors:
Triglycerides
HDL
Age
Gender
Psychosocial Issues
LDL

9

What is a good HDL level?

Optimal: > 60
Low:

10

What is a good TC level?

Optimal:

11

What is a good LDL Level?

Optimal:

12

What is a good triglyceride level?

Optimal:

13

What is a normal blood pressure reading?

14

What does NCEP stand for?

National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)

15

What does TLC stand for?

Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC)

16

What is the nutrient composition of the TLC diet?

Saturated fat _______

Polyunsaturated fat _______

Monounsaturated fat _______

Total fat ________

Carbohydrate _________

Fiber _________

Soluble fiber _________

Protein Approximately ______

_________________________

Saturated fat:

17

What are the general American Heart Association recommendations? (4)

1. Use up at least as many calories as you take in

2. Eat a variety of nutritious foods from all the food groups

3. Eat less nutrient-poor foods

4. Don’t smoke and stay away from second hand smoke

18

What is atherosclerosis?

A condition that develops when plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries.

19

CVD is the leading cause of death in the U.S., what is its prevalence?

1/3 deaths in America

20

What are some of risk factors associated with CVD? (7)

1. Inactivity
2. Hypertension
3. High cholesterol
4. Poor diet
5. Obesity
6. Smoking
7. Diabetes

21

What is the name of the famous study done on CVD?

Framingham Heart Study

22

What was the main objective of the Framingham Heart Study?

To identify the most common risk factors or characteristics associated with CVD.

23

What were the risk factors that the framingham study find that was linked to CVD?

Major risk factors:
Hypertension
High Cholesterol
Smoking
Obesity
Diabetes
Physical Activity

Other related risk factors:
Triglycerides
HDL
Age
Gender
Psychosocial Issues
LDL

24

What is a good HDL level?

Optimal: > 60
Low:

25

Do trans fats occur in nature? if so, where?

Yes they occur in nature and the process occurs in RUMINANTS via bacterial hydrogenation.

26

What is a good LDL Level?

Optimal:

27

What is a good triglyceride level?

Optimal:

28

What is a normal blood pressure reading?

29

What does NCEP stand for?

National Cholesterol Education Protein (NCEP)

30

What does TLC stand for?

Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC)

31

What is the TLC focused on? (3)

It focuses on:

1. Reducing saturated fats
2. Weight reduction
3. Increasing physical activity

32

What is the nutrient composition of the TLC diet?

Saturated fat _______

Polyunsaturated fat _______

Monounsaturated fat _______

Total fat ________

Carbohydrate _________

Fiber _________

Soluble fiber _________

Protein Approximately ______

_________________________

Saturated fat:

33

What are the general American Heart Association recommendations? (4)

1. Use up at least as many calories as you take in

2. Eat a variety of nutritious foods from all the food groups

3. Eat less nutrient-poor foods

4. Don’t smoke and stay away from second hand smoke

34

Based on the AHA, how much should you exercise for?

Aim for 30 minutes/day in at least 10 minutes/session

35

Based on the AHA, how often should you eat fish?

Twice a week

36

What is the effect of eating saturated fats?

RAISES LDL
RAISES HDL
RAISES TC

37

Is there a direct association between saturated fats and CVD?

NO.

BUT, there is strong evidence that replacing SFA with PUFA reduces TC and LDL-C and the risk of CVD events.

It is better to replace saturated fasts with unsaturated fats, then to replace them with carbohydrates.

38

What is the DGA's recommendation for saturated fats?

Retain the 10% upper limit for saturated fats.

39

Is trans fat saturated or unsaturated?

It is unsaturated.

40

Why is trans fat unique?

The double bond configuation is altered during hydrogenation of liquid oils.

41

Do trans fats occur in nature? if so, where?

Yes they occur in nature and the process occurs in RUMINANTS via bacterial hydrogenation.

42

What is trans fats affect on LDL and HDL?

RAISES LDL
LOWERS HDL

43

What is another name for omega-6 FA?

Linoleic Acid (an essential fatty acid)

44

What is the current ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3? What do we want it to be for heart health?

Currently: 16:1

What we want: 4:1

45

What is another name for omega-3 FA?

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (an essential fatty acid)

46

What are two other types of omega-3 fatty acids found in cold water fish and seafood?

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)

Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)

47

What is the AI for n-3 FA?

1.1 g/day for women 14+

1.4 g/day for men 14+

48

What is a benefit of consuming omega-3 FA?

It has been found to reduce TG levels and inhibit platelet aggregation.

49

What is homocysteine?

homocysteine is an amino acid that is found in the blood for a short time.

50

How does homocysteine become present in the blood and why is this a concern?

Homocysteine is found in the blood when methionine is metabolized.

High levels are thought to cause damage to the linings of arteries and speeds up formation of blood clots

51

What is needed to reduce Homocysteine levels?

Folic acid, Vitamin B6 and B12 are necessary to convert Homocysteine to other amino acids.

52

What is the main source of fat for the Mediterranean diet?

MUFA oils are the main source of fat